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1

A disease capable of being passed from one person to another
Caused by microorganisms

Infectious disease

2

Infection Control Goals
(Karen Kelly, RN, BSN)

1. Reduce the risk of health care workers (student radiographers) acquiring an infection
2. Reduce the incidence of transmitting healthcare worker (student radiographers) flora to patients
3. Reduce the transmission of infectious pathogens from patient to patient

3

Drugs that tend to destroy microbes or prevent their multiplication

Antimicrobial drugs

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Soluble substances derived from a mold or bacterium that kills or inhibits growth of other microorganisms

Antibiotics

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3 types of infections

Nosocomial infection
Iatrogenic infection (type of nosocomial)
Community-acquired infection

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Infections acquired in the course of medical care, hospital, clinic.....
Infections contracted @ birth by infants of infected mother

Nosocomial infection

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Nosocomial infection that results from a particular treatment/therapeutic procedure

Iatrogenic infection

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A person who enters a HC facility with an infection

Community-acquired infection

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Microorganisms in everyone @ all times

Normal flora

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Infections that are caused by microorganisms that are not normal flora

Exogenous nosocomial infection

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A person acquires an infection in HC setting
Result of an overgrowth of normal flora or treatment w/broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug

Endogenous nosocomial infection

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Drug effective against a wide variety of different microorganisms

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug

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Flora acquired by contact w/object on which they present
Easy to remove from skin

Transient flora

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Bacteria living on skin which not result in infection

Resident flora

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2 Common sites of nosocomial infection

Bloodstream (venous access devices)
Urinary tract (catheters)

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Others frequent sites of nosocomial infection

Wounds following surgical procedures
Respiratory tract infections

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4 factors that encourage nosocomial infection

1. Environment (air)
2. Therapeutic regimen (drug)
3. Equipment
4. Contamination during procedure

18

8 factors increase potential for nosocomial infection

1. Age
2. Heredity (genetic)
3. Nutritional status (obesity)
4. Stress
5. Inadequate rest & exercise
6. Personal habits (smoking)
7. Health history
8. Inadequate defenses (broken skin)

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Microorganisms

Don't fit any plant or animal kingdoms (3rd kingdom)

Used in food/drug to destroy waste

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3rd kingdom or "Protista kingdom"

Plant or animal kingdom
Formulated by Haeckel

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Protista kingdom includes

Bacteria
Fungi
Protozoa
Helminths
Viruses
Prisons

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4 major groups of microorganism produce disease

Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses
Parasites

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Microscopic, single-celled organisms
Endospores (resisting, allow to survive)
Tuberculosis/Strep throat
Colorless
Minute

Bacteria

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Cells require an oxygenated environment to live
Macroscopic or microscopic (mushroom)
Molds
Yeast

Fungi

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Smallest microorganism
Cannot visualize under any microscope
Either DNA or RNA – never both
Host cell
Viral diseases include: influenza, common cold, mumps, measles, and Hepatitis

Viruses

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Microorganisms produce diseases are called

Pathogenic
Pathogen
Pathogenicity

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Primary source of material for the production of antibiotic drugs and to flavor various cheeses

Molds

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Produce beer/wine; source of vitamins & minerals
Thrush

Yeast

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Organisms that live on or in other organisms at the expense of the host organ
Can be a plant or animal
Animal parasites (animal) are pathogenic to humans

Parasites

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5 elements needed to transmit infection

1. Infectious Agent (human,plant,animal)
2. Reservoir or an environment
3. Portal of exit (nose/mouth)
4. Means of transmission (direct/indirect)
5. Portal of entry (equipment)