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1

A disease capable of being passed from one person to another
Caused by microorganisms

Infectious disease

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Infection Control Goals
(Karen Kelly, RN, BSN)

1. Reduce the risk of health care workers (student radiographers) acquiring an infection
2. Reduce the incidence of transmitting healthcare worker (student radiographers) flora to patients
3. Reduce the transmission of infectious pathogens from patient to patient

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Drugs that tend to destroy microbes or prevent their multiplication

Antimicrobial drugs

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Soluble substances derived from a mold or bacterium that kills or inhibits growth of other microorganisms

Antibiotics

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3 types of infections

Nosocomial infection
Iatrogenic infection (type of nosocomial)
Community-acquired infection

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Infections acquired in the course of medical care, hospital, clinic.....
Infections contracted @ birth by infants of infected mother

Nosocomial infection

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Nosocomial infection that results from a particular treatment/therapeutic procedure

Iatrogenic infection

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A person who enters a HC facility with an infection

Community-acquired infection

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Microorganisms in everyone @ all times

Normal flora

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Infections that are caused by microorganisms that are not normal flora

Exogenous nosocomial infection

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A person acquires an infection in HC setting
Result of an overgrowth of normal flora or treatment w/broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug

Endogenous nosocomial infection

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Drug effective against a wide variety of different microorganisms

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug

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Flora acquired by contact w/object on which they present
Easy to remove from skin

Transient flora

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Bacteria living on skin which not result in infection

Resident flora

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2 Common sites of nosocomial infection

Bloodstream (venous access devices)
Urinary tract (catheters)

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Others frequent sites of nosocomial infection

Wounds following surgical procedures
Respiratory tract infections

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4 factors that encourage nosocomial infection

1. Environment (air)
2. Therapeutic regimen (drug)
3. Equipment
4. Contamination during procedure

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8 factors increase potential for nosocomial infection

1. Age
2. Heredity (genetic)
3. Nutritional status (obesity)
4. Stress
5. Inadequate rest & exercise
6. Personal habits (smoking)
7. Health history
8. Inadequate defenses (broken skin)

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Microorganisms

Don't fit any plant or animal kingdoms (3rd kingdom)

Used in food/drug to destroy waste

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3rd kingdom or "Protista kingdom"

Plant or animal kingdom
Formulated by Haeckel

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Protista kingdom includes

Bacteria
Fungi
Protozoa
Helminths
Viruses
Prisons

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4 major groups of microorganism produce disease

Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses
Parasites

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Microscopic, single-celled organisms
Endospores (resisting, allow to survive)
Tuberculosis/Strep throat
Colorless
Minute

Bacteria

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Cells require an oxygenated environment to live
Macroscopic or microscopic (mushroom)
Molds
Yeast

Fungi

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Smallest microorganism
Cannot visualize under any microscope
Either DNA or RNA – never both
Host cell
Viral diseases include: influenza, common cold, mumps, measles, and Hepatitis

Viruses

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Microorganisms produce diseases are called

Pathogenic
Pathogen
Pathogenicity

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Primary source of material for the production of antibiotic drugs and to flavor various cheeses

Molds

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Produce beer/wine; source of vitamins & minerals
Thrush

Yeast

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Organisms that live on or in other organisms at the expense of the host organ
Can be a plant or animal
Animal parasites (animal) are pathogenic to humans

Parasites

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5 elements needed to transmit infection

1. Infectious Agent (human,plant,animal)
2. Reservoir or an environment
3. Portal of exit (nose/mouth)
4. Means of transmission (direct/indirect)
5. Portal of entry (equipment)

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5 Means of Transmission

1. Indirect
2. direct
3. Vehicle
4. Airborne rout
5. Vectors

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Transfer by touching objects (fomites) that have been contaminated by an infected person (touch the photo of the pt)

Indirect transmission

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Contact with infectious secretions that come from the eyes, nose or mouth of a host as they cough, sneeze or talk (nose/mouth/eye/hand)

Direct transmission

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Transport infection
Food, water, drugs, contaminated blood (contain microorganism)

Vehicle transmission

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Residue from evaporated droplets are suspended in air for long periods of time

Airborne transmission

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Insect or animal carriers of disease

Vector transmission

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4 stages of Disease Process

1. Incubation stage
2. Prodromal stage
3. Full disease
4. Convalescent stage

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Stage of enters body & begins produce a diseas

Incubation stage

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Stage of microorganism increases
Disease infected
Early symptom

Prodromal stage

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Stage of disease full extent increase

Full disease stage

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Stage of symptoms/disease diminish disappear
Micro goes to latent phase

Convalescent stage

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HIV usually results in AIDS
Retrovirus
Destroys host cell and replicates while infecting other cells

HIV

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Retrovirus have an enzyme complex are called

Reverse transcriptinase

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5 phases of HIV

Phase 1: enters body & replicates in blood stream
PH 2: flu-like symptoms
PH 3: declining immune function & decrease # lymphocytes
PH4: weight loss, night sweat, rash...
PH5: immunosuppressed

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5 RNA viruses

A,B,C,E,G

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Inflammation of the liver cells

Viral Hepatitis
Caused by 5 RNA viruses

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Virus is transmitted by fecal-oral route

A & E

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New form of hepatitis

G
Same as B & C but longer incubation period

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Which hepatitis HCWK most often contact from needle-stick injury

B

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Hepatitis B & C

Most common blood-borne in US
Blood & sex

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2 others nosocomial infection

MRSA
C-difff

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Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (nursing home pt, increase in gym)
Super bug
Nursing home patients, dialysis patients, aged & debilitated, ICU patients, any patient hospitalized for a long period of time

MRSA (infection of skin)

53

Clostridium difficile
Antibiotics that predispose one by disrupting normal flora of intestinal tract
Frequent cause of nosocomial infections
Spore-forming bacteria that releases toxins into bowel
Resistant to disinfectants; easily spread by hands

C-diff (contact by hand)

54

Recurrent, chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Lungs (can’t affect area)
Pulmonary TB (student 1/year)
Asymptomatic; onset & early stages go unnoticed
Exposure of healthcare workers

Tuberculosis (TB)

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MRSA in US

Death more than AIDS
Causes outside hospital
Most causes in gym showers & changing rooms

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Reduce the number & spread of microorganisms
Microorganisms have been eliminated through the use of soap, water, friction, and various chemical disinfectants

Medical asepsis

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Complete removal of microorganisms
Their spores from the surface of an object

Surgical asepsis

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The best means of preventing the spread of microorganisms

Hand washing

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How to Wash Your Hands

Wet with water
Apply soap
Rub at least 15 seconds
Cover all surfaces of the hands and fingers
Rinse and dry thoroughly
Use paper towel to turn off water faucet

60

What does PPE stand for

Personal Protective Equipment

61

PPE includes

Gloves
Gown
Mask
Shield
To Creates a barrier between the patient and the healthcare worker

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Which precaution based on the assumption that every patient has the potential for having an infectious disease.

Standard Precautions

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What is Tier-1 precaution

Standard Precautions
Gloves
Used at all times on all patients

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What is Tier-2 precaution

Transmission Based Precautions
Used when called for: Airborne, Contact, Droplet

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Microbes are spread on evaporated droplets that remain suspended in air
Carried on dust in the air & may be inhaled by persons in the room or air space
TB, Chicken pox, measles

Airborne Isolation

66

Doors kept closed
Negative pressure isolation room
Patient wears surgical mask (filters expired air)
HCWK wears respiratory mask (N95)(filters inspired air)

Airborne Precaution

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Droplets contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms are placed in the air from an infected person with a droplet-borne infection
Sneeze, cough, and talking
3 feet
Rubella, Pneumonia, Mumps, Influenza

Droplet precaution

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Private room or a room with another patient infected with same disease
Mask (w/t 3 feet)

Droplet precaution

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Private room or a room with another patient infected with same disease
Gloves
Gown

Contact precaution

70

Reverse/Protective Isolation/(Contact precaution)

Highly susceptible patients

71

Wash hands before and after
Gown/gloves/mask
No visitors/staff with signs or symptoms of an infection (cold, rash) in room
Teamwork approach

Expanded Precautions/Strict Isolation

72

Remove pathogenic microorganism from objects or body surface (spores/mechanical chemical process)

Disinfection