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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (44):
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Cardiopulmonary

Pertaining to the heart and lungs. Reflects the connection between the heart and the respiratory system.

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Nasal cavity

Hollow area inside the nose

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Turbinates

Composed of a scroll-like structure

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Pleura

Serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity(parietal pleura) and covers the lungs(visceral pleura). Secretes pleural fluid.

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Visceral Pleura

Serous membrane that covers the lungs.

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Parietal Pleura

Serous membrane that lines thoracic cavity.

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Pleural space

Area between the layers of pleura that contains pleural fluid.

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Pleural fluid

Fluid in the pleural space secreted by the pleura.

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Respiration

Process of again and again breathing.

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Inhalation

Breathing in. (Inspiration)

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Exhalation

Breathing out (expiration)

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Respiratory control centers

In the brain. Regulate the depth and rate of respiration.

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Phrenic Nerve

Nerve that when stimulated, causes the diaphragm to contract and initiate respiration.

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Intercostal Muscle

2 pairs of muscles between the ribs. One contracts to spread the ribs apart during inspiration; the other contracts to pull the ribs together during coughing or sneezing.

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Eupnea

Breathing that is normal.

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Pharynx

The throat.

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Respiratory System

Body that brings oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide. The upper respiratory system includes the nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx(throat). Lower respiratory system: includes larynx(voice box) and trachea(windpipe), in the neck and bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli(in the lungs). Also known as respiratory tract.

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Mucosa

Mucous membrane that lines the entire respiratory system. Warms and humidifies incoming air. Produces mucus to trap foreign articles.

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Nasopharynx

Posterior to nasal cavity.

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Oropharynx

Posterior to oral cavity.

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Laryngopharynx

Posterior to the larynx.

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Septum

Wall of cartilage and bone that divides the nasal cavity into the right and left sides.

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Alveolus

Hollow sphere of cells in the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.

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Apex

Rounded top of each lung.

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Bronchiole

Small tubular air passageway that branches off from a bronchus and then branches into several alveoli. It's wall contains smooth muscle.

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Bronchus

Tubular air passageway supported by cartilage rings. It forms and inverted Y below the trachea. Each primary bronchus enters a lung and branches into bronchioles.

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Bronchial Tree

Includes trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.

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Bronchopulmonary

Refers to the bronchi and the lungs.

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Cilia

Small hairs that flow in waves to move foreign particles(dust & bugs) away from the lungs and toward the nose and throat where they can be expelled.

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Epiglottis

Lid like structure that seals off the larynx, so that swallowed food goes into the esophagus, not into the trachea.

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Upper respiratory infection(URI)

Bacterial to viral infection of the nose and/or throat. Also know as the common cold or a head cold.

31

Asthma

Hyperreactivity of the bronchi and bronchioles with bronchospasm(contraction of the smooth muscle). Inflammation and swelling severely narrow the lumens. Attacks are triggered by exposure to allergens, dust, mold, smoke, inhaled chemicals, exercise, cold air, or emotional stress. Also know as reactive airway disease. Shortness of breath, difficulty exhaling.

32

Arterial blood gases(ABG)

Blood test to measure the partial pressure of the gases oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) in a sample of arterial blood. The pH(how acidic or alkaline the blood is) is also measured. The higher the level of carbon dioxide, the more acidic the blood and the lower pH.

33

Carboxyhemoglobin

Blood test to measure the level of carbon monoxide in the blood of patients exposed to fires or fumes in unventilated spaces. Carbon monoxide is carried by hemoglobin as carboxyhemoglobin. A blood level above 50% is fatal.

34

Oximetry

Procedure where an oximeter(a small, noninvasive clip device) is placed on the patients index finger or earlobe to measure the degree of oxygen saturation of the blood. Emits light waves that penetrate the skin and are absorbed or reflected by saturated hemoglobin(that is bound to oxygen) versus unsaturated hemoglobin. Some measure pulse rate.

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Auscultation

Procedure that uses stethoscope to listen to breath sounds.

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Percussion

Tapping. Uses the finger of one hand to tap over the finger of the other hand that is spread across the patients back over a lobe of the lung.

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Stethoscope

Instrument used to examine the chest!

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR)

Process of reviving pertaining to the heart and lungs.

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Antibiotic Drugs

Drug used against living organisms(bacteria).
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Ciprofloxacin
Ibuprofen

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Antitubercular Drugs

Treats tuberculosis. Several of these drugs must be used together in combination to be effective.
Isoniazid
Ethambutol
Rifampin

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Antitussive Drugs

Drug used to stop cough.
Dextromethorpin
Hydrocodone

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Antiviral Drugs

Prevents and treats influenza virus infection in at-risk patients with asthma or lung disease.
Oseltamivir

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Bronchodilator Drugs

Drug that produces an effect to make the bronchus widen.
Albuterol
Salmeterol
Theophylline