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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (15):
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A sexual reproduction

A type of reproduction -fission budding, and regeneration- in which a new organism is produced from one organism and has DNA identical to the parent organism.

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Chromosome

Structure in a cell's nucleus that contains hereditary material.

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Diploid

Cell whose similar to chromosome occur in pairs.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms; made up of 2 twisted strands of sugar phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases.

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Egg

Haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs.

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Fertilization

In sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg.

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Gene

A section of DNA on chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins.

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Haploid

Cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells.

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Meiosis

Reproductive process that produces 4 haploid sex cells from one diploid cell ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.

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Mitosis

Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form 2 nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase).

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Mutation

Any permanent change in a gene or chromosome of a cell; may be beneficial, harmful, or have little effect on an organism.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid; a type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes.

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Sexual reproduction

A type of reproduction in which 2 sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.

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Sperm

Haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs; in humans, male reproductive cells produced in the testes.

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Zygote

New diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organisms.