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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (42):
0

Rebulic

Government in which people elect representatives to serve them and make laws

1

Neutral

To not choose sides in a war

2

Garrison

Small outpost of soldiers to protect a certain area

3

Blockade

A naval block to restrict trade

4

Guerrillas

Swift hit-and-run fighting tactics

5

Loyalist

Colonists who chose to side with the British

6

Patriots

Colonists who chose to fight for independence from Great Britain

7

Privateers

Private ships owners transformed into war ships

8

Diplomat

Representative who serves in a foreign country in a sensitive and effective way

9

Mercenaries

Hired soldiers payed to serve

10

George Washington (American)

Virginian named head commander of the continental army by congress

11

Ethan Allen (American)

Leader of the Green Mountain Boys from Vermont who took Fort Ticonderoga and captured the much needed large cannons

12

John Hancock (American)

First president of the Second Continental Congress
First man to sign Declaration of Independence

13

John Adams (American)

Patriot who signed Declaration of Independence
Representative from Massachusetts
Coauthor of Declaration of Independence

14

Samuel Adams (American)

Patriot from Boston who signed the Declaration of Independence and formed the Sons of Liberty

15

John Paul Jones (British/American)

American naval officer famed for bravery, his most famous victory was the defeat of the British warship Serapis, during which he declared, "I have not yet begun to fight!"

16

Thomas Jefferson (American)

American statesman, and member of two Continental congress from Virginia, the Declaration’s main author and one of its signers

17

Benjamin Franklin (American)

He was a founding father, helped draft the Declaration of Independence, he was a printer, a scientist, rep from pa, top diplomat in France

18

General Thomas Gage (British)

Early British General who ordered the redcoats to march to Concord to seize a stockpile of weapons

Gov. Of Massachusetts

19

General Howe (British)

Had to retreat his troops at Dorchester Heights to Canada, said "The Rebels have done more in one night than my whole army could do in months."

Driven out of Boston, takes Philadelphia, loses job

20

Marquis de Lafayette (French)

Wealthy, Young (21) Frenchman who bought his own ship and brought his own army over to America and volunteered to join the continental army with no pay

Served as a general with Washington

22

Thomas Paine (British/American)

Writer of the 47-page pamphlet "Common Sense"

23

Nathan Hale (American)

Famously stated, "I only regret I have but one life to lose for my country."
He was a soldier and a spy
Captured in New York by British

24

Benedict Arnold (American/British)

Great American General, turned traitor

25

John Jay (American)

He was an American diplomat who helped draft treaty of Paris

26

De Rochambeau (French)

Combined his 4,000 soldiers with Washington's 2,500 soldiers

French General who helped Americans surround Cornwallis in Yorktown

27

Lord Cornwallis (British)

British general who moved his force of 7,200 to Yorktown, Virginia hoping to stay in communication with the British navy's, had to surrender

Lead Southern campaign

28

Francis Marion (American)

Revolutionary War commander of Marion’s Brigade, a group of guerrilla soldiers in South Carolina that used surprise raids against British communications and supply lines.
Also known as the Swamp Fox

28

Horatio Gates (British/American)

Tried to lead Patriots into battle, had half as many soldiers as he wanted, most were tired and hungry, and started with 4,000, left with 700
Lost at Camden South Carolina

28

John Burgoyne (British)

British General who planned to cut off New England from the other colonies but was defeated by General Horatio in the battle of Saratoga
Forced to surrender 6,000 redcoats

30

Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)

British "take" the hill but suffer heavy casualties. The Americans run out of ammunition.
Winner: British

31

Saratoga

Major turning point in the war when General Burgoyne is defeated and 6,000 redcoats are captured. This victory wins France's support.
Winner: Americans

32

Trenton and Princeton

Surprise attacks in the winter in New Jersey helps boost the Americans morale.
Winner: Americans

33

Battle of Yorktown

Cornwallis moved British forces to Yorktown, Virginia to stay in communication with British navy. Washington saw the Patriots chance to block the British in. He ordered Lafayette to surround him on land. He combined his troops with the French troops and swiftly moved them from New York to Yorktown. The French navy blocked the British navy from entering Chesapeake Bay. Patriots weakened the British for weeks and finally Cornwallis sent a drummer and soldier with a white flag of surrender to Washington's camp. This ends the war.

34

Charleston

Relative easy victory of key port city (over 5,000 Americans captured)
Winner: British

35

Valley Forge

No battle fought here, it was a camp for the American soldiers in Pennsylvania where General Washington kept his troops for 6 months
Brutal winter where most suffered with starvation, disease

36

Declaration of Independence

Document stating the American colonies would no longer be ruled by the British empire

37

Common Sense

47-page pamphlet Thomas Paine wrote about how people should rule, not kings or queens
Common people, like farmers and stores peoples

38

Treaty of Paris

Ended the revolutionary war by signing a peace treaty agreeing to stop fighting

39

3 British advantages before war

1. Most powerful army and navy in the world
2. Experience and well-equipped soldiers
3. Help from loyalists in America

40

3 American advantages before the war

1. Fighting on familiar land and using guerrilla tactics
2. Potential help from European countries
3. A strong belief in the cause

41

STUDY ESSAY QUESTION

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