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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (30):
1

behaviour genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behaviour

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environment

every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

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chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of the genetic material in the organism's chromosomes

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identical twins

twins who level from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating the two genetically identical organisms

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fraternal twins

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

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temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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heritability

the proportion of variation among individual that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studies.

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interaction

the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

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molecular genetics

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behaviour and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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mutation

the random error in gene replication that leads to a change

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gender

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by while people define male and female

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culture

the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people transmitted from one generation to the next

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norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behaviour. norms prescribes 'proper' behaviour

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personal space

the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

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individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identify in terms of personal attributes rather than group identities

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collectivism

giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identify accordingly

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aggression

physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone

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X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. females have two x chromosomes; males have one. an x chromosome from each parent produces a female child

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Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in men. when paired with and x chromosome from the mother, it will produce a male child

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testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in male's stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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gender role

a set of expected behaviour for males and for females

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gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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gender typing

the acquisition of the traditional masculine or feminine role

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social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behaviour by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished