Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (50):
1

activation-information mode model (AIM)

revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.

2

activation-synthesis hypothesis

premise that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods.

3

adaptive theory

theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active.

4

Alcohol

the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter.

5

alpha waves

brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep.

6

altered states of consciousness

state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness.

7

Amphetamines

stimulants that are synthesized (made) in laboratories rather than being found in nature.

8

Barbiturates

depressant drugs that have a sedative effect

9

Benzodiazepines

depressant drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress.

10

beta waves

smaller and faster brain waves, typically indicating mental activity.

11

Caffeine

a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant-based substances.

12

circadian rhythm

a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period.

13

Cocaine

a natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant.

14

Consciousness

a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior.

15

delta waves

long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep

16

Depressants

drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system.

17

Hallucinogens

drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality.

18

Hallucinogenic

drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produces hallucinations or increased feelings or relaxation and intoxication.

19

Heroin

narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive.

20

Hypnosis

state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion.

21

Insomnia

the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.

22

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

powerful synthetic hallucinogen.

23

Marijuana

mild hallucinogen (also known as “pot” or “weed”) derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant.

24

MDMA (Ecstasy or X)

designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects.

25

Mescaline

natural hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus buttons.

26

micro sleeps

brief sidesteps of sleep lasting only a few seconds.

27

Morphine

narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain.

28

Narcolepsy

sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day, without warning.

29

Narcotics

- a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.

30

Nicotine

the active ingredient in tobacco.`

31

night terrors

relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.

32

Nightmares

bad dreams occurring during REM sleep

33

non-REM (NREM) sleep

any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM.

34

Opium

substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived.

35

PCP

synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects.

36

physical dependence

condition occurring when a person’s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug.

37

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream.

38

REM behavior disorder

a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.

39

REM paralysis

the inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep.

40

REM rebound

increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights.

41

restorative theory

theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.

42

sleep apnea

disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more during sleep.

43

sleep deprivation

any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability.

44

sleepwalking (somnambulism)

occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep.

45

social-cognitive theory of hypnosis

theory that assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation.

46

Stimulants

drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.

47

stimulatory hallucinogenics

drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.

48

theta waves

brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep.

49

waking consciousness

state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized, and the person feels alert.

50

Withdrawal

physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems.