Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (50):
activation-information mode model (AIM)
revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.
premise that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods.
theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active.
the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter.
brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep.
altered states of consciousness
state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness.
stimulants that are synthesized (made) in laboratories rather than being found in nature.
depressant drugs that have a sedative effect
depressant drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress.
smaller and faster brain waves, typically indicating mental activity.
a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant-based substances.
a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period.
a natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant.
a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior.
long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep
drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system.
drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality.
drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produces hallucinations or increased feelings or relaxation and intoxication.
narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive.
state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
powerful synthetic hallucinogen.
mild hallucinogen (also known as “pot” or “weed”) derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant.
MDMA (Ecstasy or X)
designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects.
natural hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus buttons.
brief sidesteps of sleep lasting only a few seconds.
narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain.
sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day, without warning.
- a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.
the active ingredient in tobacco.`
relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully.
bad dreams occurring during REM sleep
non-REM (NREM) sleep
any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM.
substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived.
synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects.
condition occurring when a person’s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug.
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream.
REM behavior disorder
a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares.
the inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep.
increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights.
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage.
disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more during sleep.
any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability.
occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep.
social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
theory that assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation.
drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system.
drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep.
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized, and the person feels alert.