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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (30):
1

abstracting

When we make a statement about something, we select only certain aspects of the thing we are describing and leave out other aspects

2

affiliation

A feeling of belongingness expressed by some messages

3

allness

Statements that imply that the verbal expression
has captured the totality of a person, object, or event

4

behavioral descriptions

Being more precise by adding language to indicate the specific actions to which you are referring

5

connotative meaning

Personal meanings of words that are based on the images and emotions aroused by a word

6

dating

A way to avoid abstracting and allness by indicating when (giving a date) the statement was true in
your experience

7

denotative meaning

Meanings of words that are found in dictionary definitions

8

disaffiliation

A feeling of a lack of connection expressed by some messages

9

euphemisms

Other words or phrases used in place of words or phrases that might be considered offensive, unpleasant, or taboo

10

imprecise language

Words or phrases that lack sufficient clarity to guide interpretation

11

indexing

A way to avoid abstracting and allness by acknowledge the differences that may exist between people within a group or between a person at one point in time and another point in time

12

jargon

A specialized vocabulary of a particular group (professional groups or a co-cultural group)

13

language

Refers to a more-or-less formally established
collection of spoken words and/or symbols that has meaning for a specific group of people

14

lexicon

A formal system of written characters representing the spoken words of a language system

15

marking

An example of racist or sexist use of language
where a person’s race, ethnicity or gender are referred to when those characteristics are irrelevant

16

operational definitions

Being more precise by your adding language to describe what you mean by the terms you use

17

phonological rules

Rules that deal with how words sound when spoken

18

polarizing terms

Terms that assert that the thing discussed must be either of one kind or of its opposite kind

19

pragmatic rules

Language rules (usually unstated and which we come to understand largely through context) that allow us to understand the meaning that we are expected to attach to a phrase or sentence

20

racist language

The intentional use of epithets or terms that tend to imply the inferiority of persons who are not members of the dominant culture; also occurs when a person’s race,ethnicity or gender are referred to when those characteristics are irrelevant to the
message (called marking)

21

relational messages

Messages that convey information about how you view your relationship with the other person with respect to power and connection

22

relative terms

Terms which derive their meaning by specifying their relationship to other factors

23

semantic rules

Language rules that dictate the range of
meanings that a particular language group assigns to
a particular word

24

sexist language

The intentional use of terms that tend
to imply the inferiority of persons who are not members of the dominant culture

25

symbolic language

Words don’t have meanings; they are merely symbols that represent ideas, feelings,
objects, or events in our experience

26

syntactic rules

Language rules that deal with how words are combined in sentences

27

theory of linguistic relativity

(Sapir-Whorf hypothesis)
Theory that asserts that the way a culture (or nation) thinks is related to the grammatical structure of thelanguage that the culture speaks

28

time binding

A characteristic of humans that allows them the ability to accumulate and communicate knowledge of the past in order to live in the present and shape the future

29

trigger words

Verbal expressions that arouse emotions
to such an extent that internal psychological noise is created

30

verbal communication

The exchange of meanings by the use of the written or spoken symbols of a language system