Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (43):
1

Nervous tissue

Internal communication

2

Muscle tissue

Contracts to cause movement

3

Epithelial tissue

Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters

4

Connective tissue

Supports, protects, binds other tissues together

5

Two main types of epithelium

1. Covering and lining
2. Glandular

6

Simple epithelium

1 layer

7

Stratified epithelium has how many layers

More than 1

8

Describe simple squamous epithelium

Single layer of flattened cells with disc shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. The simplest of the epithelial

9

What are the functions of simple squamous epithelium

Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae

10

Location of simple squamous epithelium

Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of central body cavity

11

Endothelium

The lining of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and heart

12

Mesothelium

The epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity

13

Describe simple cuboidal epithelium

Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei

14

Function of simple cuboidal epithelium

Secretion and absorption

15

Location of simple cuboidal epithelium

Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

16

Description of simple columnar epithelium

Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus secreting unicellular glands

17

Endocrine glands

Ductless glands

Secrete hormones that travel through lymph or blood to target organs

18

Exocrine glands

Secrete products into ducts

Secretions released into body surfaces or into body cavities

19

The only important unicellular gland is

Goblet cell

20

Multicellular exocrine glands are composed of

A duct and a secretory unit

21

Merocrine

Products are secreted by exocytosis

22

Holocrine

Products are secreted by rupture of gland cells

23

Is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type

Connective tissue

24

Major functions of connective tissue are

Binding and support
Protection
Insulation
Transportation

25

Ground substances are

Medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells

26

Collagen fibers

Strongest and most abundant type
Provides high tensile strength

27

Elastic fibers

Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch

28

Reticular fibers

Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers

29

Blasts

Mitotically active and secretory cells

30

Cytes

Mature cells

31

Mesenchyme is

Embryonic connective tissue

32

Mucous membranes or mucosae

Line body cavities open to the exterior

33

Serous membranes or serosae

Membranes in a closed ventral body cavity

34

Parietal serosae

Line internal body walls

35

Visceral serosae

Cover internal organs

36

Steps of tissue repair are

1. Inflammation
2. Organization and restored blood supply
3. Regeneration and fibrosis

37

What happens in inflammation

Release of inflammatory chemicals
Dilation of blood vessels
Increase in vessel permeability
Clotting

38

What happens in organization and restored blood supply

The blood clot is replaced with granulation tissue.
Epithelium begins to regenerate
Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to bridge the gap
Debris is phagocytized

39

What happens in regeneration and fibrosis

The scab detaches
Fibrous tissue matures: epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue
Results in a fully regenerated epithelium with underlying scar tissue

40

Nerve tissue arises from

Ectoderm

41

Muscle and connective tissues arise from

Mesoderm

42

Epithelial tissues arise from

All three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

43

Tissues

Groups of cells similar in structure and function