Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (63):
outer limiting barrier separating internal contents of the cell from the external environment
largest cellular structure that houses DNA
all material between plasma membrane and nucleus
intracellular structures for specific functions
clusters of a single type of molecule
what are the functions for the plasma membrane?
physical barrier, selective permeability, electrochemical gradient, communication
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
establishes and maintains electrical charge differences
makes up majority of plasma membrane
phosphate heads are _____
fatty acid tails are ______
strengthens plasma membrane
forms a coat of sugars around the cell
proteins embedded within and extend across the phospholipid bilayer
proteins with a loose attachment to integral proteins
facilitates the movement of substances across the membrane
bind specific molecules called ligands
communicate to other cells what they are and where they belong
catalyze reactions either on the inner or outer surface of the cell
secures the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane
holds neighboring cells together
cell adhesion protein
can pass through phospholipid bilayer
cannot pass through the phospholipid
what is permeable?
small non polar solutes
what is non-permeable?
charged solutes, polar solutes, large solutes
doesn't require ATP
random movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
difference in concentration
diffusion through the lipid bilayer
what does simple diffusion transport?
gases, nonpolar fatty acids, ethanol, urea
diffusion of specific solutes through integral channel proteins
channel mediated facilitated diffusion
what do channel mediated facilitate diffusion transport?
what are the 2 types of channels?
integral carrier protein binds with target solute and changes shape to move the solute to the other side of the membrane
carrier mediated facilitated diffusion
what do carrier mediated facilitated diffusion transport?
simple sugars, amino acids
movement of water from an area of low non-permeable particle concentration to high non-permeable concentration
description of how the solution affects a cells shape or tone
solution does not cause water to flow in or out of the cell
solution resultes in osmotic flow into the cell, causes cell to swell
cell bursts due to too much water in cell
resultes in osmotic flow out of the cell, causes cell to shrivel
the force with which war moves as a result of solute concentration
force on a fluid as a result of its container or external force
carrier proteins move solutes using ATP
carrier mediated active transport
pumps bound solutes across against the concentration gradient
primary active transport
moves solute against its gradient by moving it in conjunction with a solid going down its gradient
secondary active transport
substance moves in the same direction
substance moves in opposite direction
vesicles move large substances or large amounts
vesicles within cell fuse with plasma membrane to release contents
formation of a vesicle at the cell surface to bring material into the cell
gathers specific target molecules to be brought into the cell
receptor mediated endocytosis
electrical charge difference across the membrane at rest
resting membrane potential
ECF has a high concentration of
ICF has a high concentration of
what gradient do potassium ions follow?
what gradient do sodium ions follow?
electrical and chemical
sodium potassium pump removes ____ for every ___ put back into the cell