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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (63):
1

outer limiting barrier separating internal contents of the cell from the external environment

Plasma membrane

2

largest cellular structure that houses DNA

nucleus

3

all material between plasma membrane and nucleus

cytoplasm

4

intracellular structures for specific functions

organelles

5

clusters of a single type of molecule

inclusions

6

what are the functions for the plasma membrane?

physical barrier, selective permeability, electrochemical gradient, communication

7

Regulates what enters and leaves the cell

selective permeability

8

establishes and maintains electrical charge differences

Electrochemical gradient

9

makes up majority of plasma membrane

phospholipids

10

phosphate heads are _____

hydrophilic

11

fatty acid tails are ______

hydrophobic

12

strengthens plasma membrane

cholesterol

13

forms a coat of sugars around the cell

glycolipids

14

proteins embedded within and extend across the phospholipid bilayer

integral proteins

15

proteins with a loose attachment to integral proteins

peripheral proteins

16

facilitates the movement of substances across the membrane

transport protein

17

bind specific molecules called ligands

receptors

18

communicate to other cells what they are and where they belong

identity marker

19

catalyze reactions either on the inner or outer surface of the cell

enzymes

20

secures the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane

anchoring site

21

holds neighboring cells together

cell adhesion protein

22

can pass through phospholipid bilayer

permeable

23

cannot pass through the phospholipid

non-permeable

24

what is permeable?

small non polar solutes

25

what is non-permeable?

charged solutes, polar solutes, large solutes

26

doesn't require ATP

passive transport

27

random movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to low concentration

diffusion

28

difference in concentration

concentration gradient

29

diffusion through the lipid bilayer

simple diffusion

30

what does simple diffusion transport?

gases, nonpolar fatty acids, ethanol, urea

31

diffusion of specific solutes through integral channel proteins

channel mediated facilitated diffusion

32

what do channel mediated facilitate diffusion transport?

small ions

33

what are the 2 types of channels?

leak, gated

34

integral carrier protein binds with target solute and changes shape to move the solute to the other side of the membrane

carrier mediated facilitated diffusion

35

what do carrier mediated facilitated diffusion transport?

simple sugars, amino acids

36

movement of water from an area of low non-permeable particle concentration to high non-permeable concentration

osmosis

37

description of how the solution affects a cells shape or tone

tonicity

38

solution does not cause water to flow in or out of the cell

isotonic

39

solution resultes in osmotic flow into the cell, causes cell to swell

hypotonic

40

cell bursts due to too much water in cell

lysis

41

resultes in osmotic flow out of the cell, causes cell to shrivel

hypertonic

42

cells shrinks

crenate

43

the force with which war moves as a result of solute concentration

osmotic pressure

44

force on a fluid as a result of its container or external force

hydrostatic pressure

45

requires ATP

active transport

46

carrier proteins move solutes using ATP

carrier mediated active transport

47

pumps bound solutes across against the concentration gradient

primary active transport

48

moves solute against its gradient by moving it in conjunction with a solid going down its gradient

secondary active transport

49

substance moves in the same direction

symport

50

substance moves in opposite direction

antiport

51

vesicles move large substances or large amounts

vesicular transport

52

vesicles within cell fuse with plasma membrane to release contents

exocytosis

53

formation of a vesicle at the cell surface to bring material into the cell

endocytosis

54

cell eating

phagocytosis

55

cell drinking

pinocytosis

56

gathers specific target molecules to be brought into the cell

receptor mediated endocytosis

57

electrical charge difference across the membrane at rest

resting membrane potential

58

ECF has a high concentration of

sodium ions

59

ICF has a high concentration of

potassium ions

60

what gradient do potassium ions follow?

chemical

61

what gradient do sodium ions follow?

electrical and chemical

62

sodium potassium pump removes ____ for every ___ put back into the cell

3NA, 2K

63

how does the RPM communicate?

by opening and closing ion gated channels