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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (107):
1

How did Robert Hook come up with the name cell

He was looking at a cork, and thought each piece looked like a little version of the monastery rooms called cells

2

Who invented the microscope?

Anton von Leeuwenhoek

3

Anton von Leeuwenhoek scraped turn off his teeth and saw moving things; he called them __

Animalcupes

4

All cells come from previously existing cells

Cell theory

5

Discovered and named nucleus

Robert Brown

6

Matthies Schleiden said __

That plants were made of cells

7

Theodore Schwann said____

Animals were made of cells

8

This person said all cells come from from pre-existing cells

Rudolph Virchow

9

The parts of cell theory

1. All organisms are made of cells
2. Cells are the fundamental unit of life (structural and function)
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
4. Also's have the same basic chemical composition
5. All cells use energy
6. All cells contain DNA that is duplicated and passed onto further generation of cells

10

Smaller cells give a __ surface area to volume ratio; so you can get __

1. Larger
2. More stuff in and out more efficiently

11

__ is the largest single cell

An ostrich egg

12

The largest cell in our body is a __ that runs down the __

Nerve cell
The back of the leg

13

Visible light through specimen

Light microscopy

14

Characteristics of light microscopy

Glass lenses, visible light, view things that are alive only in 2D

15

Electrons are passed through a thin slice of specimen

Transmission electron microscopy

16

Characteristics of transmission electron microscopy

Greater magnification and detail, cannot look at live specimen, use my magnetic field instead of lenses, see inside cell

17

The use of magnetic fields instead of lenses in transmission electron microscopy allow for __

High resolution but still in 2D

18

Characteristics of scanning electron microscopy

Great reminder vacation in detail, specimen cannot be alive, specimens code of the certain metal, uses magnetic field's, 3-D image because greater depth of field

19

Don't have a true nucleus

Prokaryotic cell

20

Shapes of the prokaryotic cell (bacteria)

Bacillus, coccos, spirilla, spirochete

21

Rod shaped

Bacillus

22

Spherical

Cocos

23

Rigid spiral (corkscrew shape)

Spirilla

24

Corkscrew, but flexible ( can corkscrew into skin)

Spirochete

25

Will include a cell wall

Cell envelope

26

Proteins embedded and semi permeable; regulates what goes in and out

Plasma membrane

27

Layer of polysaccharides outside cell wall (humans have it too)

Glyococalyx

28

Two layers of glyococalyx (in bacteria)

Capsule layer and slime layer

29

Not easily washed off

Capsule layer

30

Easily washed off

Slime layer

31

Three functions of the glyococalyx

Aids in preventing the cell from drying out, resist the host immune system, aids in attachment

32

Semi fluid

Cytoplasm

33

Cytoplasm has __ and __

Nucleoid and ribosomes

34

Where DNA is found; have one chromosome in DNA

Nucleoid

35

Extra chromosomal outside DNA usually found in rings

Plasmids

36

Site of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

37

External structures of prokaryotes

Flagella, fimbriae, conjugation pili

38

Long whip like structure that aids in movement; like a propeller; one or two

Flagella

39

Small, bristle-like fibers for attachment; part of the glycocalyx

Frimbriae

40

Rigid tubular structures that pass DNA from cell to cell

Conjugation pili

41

Prokaryotes reproduce by __

Binary fission

42

One cell splits into two; budding is an example

Binary fission

43

Prokaryotic cells are much __ than eukaryotes

Smaller

44

Have a true nucleus

You chaotic cells

45

Eukaryotic cells have __

Plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane-bound organelles

46

Membrane-bound organelle that has DNA

Nucleus

47

Made up of membrane-bound organelles and has cytosol

Cytoplasm

48

Fluid that organelles sit in

Cytosol

49

Eukaryotic cells evolved from __; called the __ theory

Prokaryotic cells
Endosymbiotic

50

Mitochondria and
Chloroplast were once free living prokaryotes and then entered eukaryotic cells and formed a symbiotic relationship

Endosymbiotic theory

51

Evidence that The endosymbiotic theory is true, bc mitochondria and chloroplasts ....

1. Are about the same size as prokaryotic cells
2. They have a double membrane surrounding them
3. They have their own DNA
4. They divide by splitting
5. They have their own ribosomes that resemble Prokaryotes
6. There rRNA sequence resembles prokaryotic rRNA

52

Control center for the cell

Nucleus

53

DNA and undivided form is called

Chromatin

54

DNA when condensed enough to see it is called

Chromosomes

55

Sequence of DNA that codes for the production of a protein; found on chromosomes

Genes

56

Double membrane around nucleus; has nuclear pores to allow things in and out

Nuclear envelope

57

Jelly like substance inside nucleus

Nucleoplasm

58

Dense region of nucleus that is involved in the production of rRNA

Nucleolus

59

Ribosome function

Site of protein synthesis

60

Ribosome location

Floating around the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

61

Ribosome structure

Two subunits, small one on top big one on bottom, made a protein and rRNA

62

A network of membranes channels and saccules

Endoplasmic reticulum

63

The ER is __

Continuous with the nuclear membrane

64

Types of ER

Rough ER and smooth ER

65

Closest to nucleus, has ribosomes attached to it

Rough ER

66

The function of rough ER

Protein synthesis because it has ribosomes attached to it

67

Don't have ribosomes

Smooth ER

68

Function of smooth ER

Make lipids and fatty acids

69

Stack of flat, membrane-bound sacks

Golgi apparatus

70

Three parts of the structure of golgi apparatus

Cisternae, cis face, trans face

71

Individual that makes up stack of Golgi apparatus

Cisternae

72

Where molecules enter the golgi apparatus

Cis face

73

Where molecules exit the golgi apparatus

Trans face

74

Function of the golgi apparatus

Processing center; modify, sort, distribute molecules

75

Membrane-bound vesicles made by the golgi apparatus, and contain digestive enzymes

Lysosomes

76

Function of lysosomes

To get rid of things we don't want

77

Membrane-bound vesicles, detoxification

Peroxisomes

78

Function of peroxisomes

To get rid of toxins or poisons

79

Membrane-bound storage vessel, water(most common) and nutrients

Vacuoles

80

Plants have __, that keep it rigid

Central vacuole

81

Energy producing cells

Chloroplast and mitochondria

82

Only in plants, where photosynthesis takes place

Chloroplasts

83

Chloroplast has its own

DNA

84

Two parts of the structure of Chloroplast

Thylakoid and stroma

85

Membranous sac within the chloroplast, where photosynthesis begins

Thylakoid

86

One stack of thylakoid is called

Granum

87

Fluid surrounding thylakoids

Stroma

88

Energy production of the cell

Mitochondria

89

Structure of mitochondria

Has a double membrane- an inner membrane and inside the inner membrane, matrix

90

The inner folded membrane of mitochondria is called

Cistae

91

Inside liquid of inner membrane of mitochondria

Matrix

92

Skeleton of cell

Cytoskeleton

93

Function of cytoskeleton

Structure support movement

94

The three types of cytoskeleton

Microfilaments , intermediate filaments, microtubules

95

Long, thin, flexible; deal with cellular movement and muscle contraction

Microfilaments

96

Protein that makes up microfilaments

Actin

97

Function is to maintain cell shape and function in cell to cell junction, make up keratin

Intermediate filaments

98

Proteins that make up intermediate filaments

A lot of different ones

99

Aid in cell division, form tracks within the cell that help with distribution; hollow

Microtubules

100

Protein that makes up microtubules

Tubulin

101

Thickest to thinnest type of cytoskeleton

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

102

Organizes the mitotic spindle; aids in pulling chromosomes apart

Centrioles

103

Two centrioles at right angles to each other

Centrosome

104

FUnction of cilia and flagella

Movement

105

One or two per cell, longer and whip like

Flagella

106

Smaller, short, hundreds on a cell; more for movement of substance over a cell

Cilia

107

who coined the word cell?

Robert Hooke