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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (98):
1

cell walls of multicellular plants are composed mainly off

cellulose

2

the term least closely related to the others is (cytoskeleton, microfilament, microtubule, cell juncture)

cell juncture

3

in a chloroplast, the stacks of membranous sacs are called

grans

4

the structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the

plasma membrane

5

if a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n)

eukaryotic cell

6

one advantage of electron microscopes over light microscopes is their

higher magnification

7

when a cell is ready to reproduce, its DNA is packed into

chromosomes

8

the scientist who first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope was

van Leeuwenhoek

9

each of the following is a mina idea of the cell theory except

all cells are similar in structure and function

10

a plasma membrane is made up of a(n)

phospholipid bilayer

11

Some membrane proteins anchor a cell to other structures in its extracellular environment. Would you expect these proteins to span the entire membrane?

yes; they need to attach to the cell's cytoskeleton

12

An environment toxin is discovered that interferes with certain cellular functions. When affected cells are examined, it is observed that proteins that are normally found on the plasma membrane are instead found in the cytoplasm. Other proteins are located improperly as well. Which of the following structures is most likely affected by the toxin?

golgi apparatus

13

Which of the following are a component of the cell theory?

the cell is the basic unit of organization, all organisms are made up of at least one cell, all cells come from other preexisting cells

14

Which of the following would NOT be found in a cell's plastids?

glycogen

15

Proteins are assembled by which organelles?

ribosomes

16

Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a cell's environment. This includes the regulation of sodium ion (Na+) concentration within the cell. If too much Na+ is inside a cell, how will the concentration be changed?

excess Na+ ions will be transported out through membrane protein channels

17

Which of the following instruments allows a scientist to study intracellular structure?

transmission electron microscope

18

What part of a phospholipid allows the cell membrane to interact with water in its environment?

phosphate group, because it is polar

19

which of the following organelles is involved in the digestion of other worn-out organelles

lysosome

20

if a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a

plant cell

21

a membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac

vacuole

22

closely stacked, flattened membrane sacs

golgi complex

23

the sites of protein assembly

ribosomes

24

a folded membrane that forms a network of interconnected compartments in the cytoplasm

endoplasmic reticulum

25

the clear fluid inside the cell

cytoplasm

26

contains chlorophyll, a green pigment that traps energy from sunlight and gives plants their green color

chloroplast

27

digests excess or worn-out cell parts, food particles, and invading viruses or bacteria

lysosome

28

small bumps located on the endoplasmic reticulum

ribosome

29

provides temporary storage of food, enzymes, and waste products

vacuole

30

produce a usable form of energy for the cell

mitochondria

31

modifies proteins chemically then repackages them

golgi complex

32

contains inner membranes arranged in stacks of membranous sacs called grana

chloroplast

33

plant organelles that store starches or lipids or contain pigments

plastids

34

the double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the

nuclear envelope

35

what scientist first determined that cells come only from other cells

Virchow

36

the maximum size to which a cell may grow is limited mainly by the cell's

surface area

37

which structure directly controls the transport of materials in and out of the cell

plasma membrane

38

in which of the following organelles is a cell's ATP produced

mitochondrion

39

which of the following is a unicellular organism

bacterium

40

Anton von Leewenhoek

invented the first microscope and therefore, for observing the first living cells

41

Robert Hooke

named cells

42

Matthias Scheiden

first to observe living plant cells

43

Theodor Schwann

first to observe living animal cells

44

Rudolf Virchow

cell theory

45

vascular cambium

xylem- water from roots to leaves
phloem- "food"- glucose from leaves to roots

46

cell theory

1. all living things are composed of cells
2. all cells are basic unit of structure and function in all living things
3. cells can come only from preexisting cells

47

nanotechnology

study of the tiniest part of organisms to determine how they function

48

prokaryotic cells/eukaryotic cells

two major cells

49

cytosol

thick, jellylike fluid, may contain organelles

50

mitochondria

supplies energy, powerhouse of cells

51

cristae

*enfolded area* increase the surface area of mitochondria for reactions to occur

52

nucleolus

directs protein synthesis

53

vacuole

surrounded by a membrane- tanoplast

54

nucleus

surrounded by the nuclear envelope

55

golgi complex

sort, repackage, and ship out products of the cell

56

vesticles

when it is ready to ship out, it moves away

57

ribosomes on rough ER
(proteins=ribosomes)

1. smallest
2. most numerous
3. only one in proto

58

centrioles

cell reproduction

59

plasma membrane

phospholipid bilayer

60

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of channels through which material may be transported throughout the cell

61

Paul Michael

in 1990s, came up with cellular respiration, when ATP is going back and forth, there's a way to harvest more energy=chemiosmosis

62

cells that secrete a lot of protein-like salary glands

which secrete enzymes into your mouth- are rich in rough ER

63

smooth ER

synthesis of lipids, including steroids in liver cells, enzymes of the smooth ER detoxify circulating sedatives such as barbiturates, stimulants such as amphetamines, and some antibiotics

64

as liver cells are exposed to a drug, the amounts of smooth Er and its detoxifying enzymes increase

individuals who take it- body builds up a tolerance=not as effective

65

lysosomes

only animal cells have

66

lysosomes

"clean up crew" of cell, digest and recycle worn out parts of cell

67

vacuole

may contain food, water, space, and water, or may be empty,

68

lysosomes are believed to be mutatation in a group of Jewish population in Europe

Jay-Sachs disease- after age 2- began to regress (sight decreases, talking decreases, ect.)- dies by age 6

69

theory

lysosomes- attack everything instead of digesting/doing its job

70

gap junctions

how animal cells "share" fluids or other material

71

example of gap junction

bruise- spreads through welling- gradually absorb spilled blood

72

plasmodesmata

water spills into adjacent cells by capillary action --> Turgor Pressure

73

primary cell wall in plant cell

composed of cellulose

74

secondary cell wall in plant cell

primarily of Lignin

75

chloroplast

have to have a ready source of water

76

vacuole in plant cell

tonoplast membrane

77

middle Lamella in plant cell

composed of Pectine- "glue-like" consistency- SURE-JEL

78

plastids

storage in plants
1. Leucoplasts- store starch
2. chromoplast- store pigment
3. chloroplasts- green pigment

79

120 days

average life span of a Red Blood Cell

80

peroxisomes

neutralizes potentially dangerous molecules within the cell, sometimes forming Hydrogen peroxide

81

3 months gestation

baby is fully formed but webbed; one function of lysosomes- as it increases in size, lysosome digests the webbing in between (in down syndrome, sometimes the webbing stays)

82

some animal cells have cilia/flagella, many don't

almost never found in plant cells

83

cilia

respiratory system that prevents particles from coming in to one's lungs; usually doesn't function a,on heavy smokers by eventually can function again and gain the pink color after quitting

84

flagellum

long swimming of sperm

85

in men

infertility and cilia respiratory system sometimes correlate

86

live stock producers add antibiotics to animal feed to promote growth and prevent illness

may favor bacteria that resist standard antibiotics- some patients misuse prescribed meds by prematurely stopping their meds

87

penicillin

effective against many bacterial infections in the 1940s, is virtually useless today in its original form

88

smallest unit

ribosomes

89

ER with ribosomes

rough ER

90

mitochondria

95% of energy

91

cell wall in woody plant cells

primary- cellulose

92

chloroplast loses chlorophyll when tomato ripens

becomes a chromoplast

93

leucoplasts

turn brown when exposed to air

94

most mitochondria=more energy

muscle cells

95

high energy form found in mitochondria

ATP- becomes ADP when it uses that energy

96

ATP

high energy (3)0 could go down to AMP

97

only non nucleated cell

red blood cells- made by bone marrow

98

only animal with nucleated red blood cells

camel- can go long period of time with no water as they have organelles that'll eliminate the water (10 lbs/ 10 mins)