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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (32):
1

Where in a cell is ATP made?

Mitochondria

2

What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

mRNA

3

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the glycocalyx found in bacteria?
A.
a viscous coating surrounding the cell made of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or both
B. a structure that can be visualized using an acidic negative stain and a basic counterstain
C. if firmly attached, contributes to bacteiral virulence
D. creates a slimy, slippery coating that prevents bacterial from attaching to surfaces

D
This is not characteristic of the glycocalyx. In fact, the glycocalyx enables the bacteria to attach to surfaces and create biofilms.

4

Describe the endomembrane system :
Protein production and transport

Rough ER : Manufacturing

Vesicle from ER : Transport

Golgi apparatus
;Processing

Vesicle from Golgi : Transport

Plasma membrane : Secretion

5

Pathogenic bacteria
A. can be identified and classified by differences in their flagellar proteins.
B. have a unique basal body structure.
C. are unique because they have a membrane covering the filament.
D. do not have flagella.

A

6

True OR False?
A cell wall is a requirement for all living bacteria.

False

7

Which of the following molecules would be blocked by the cell membrane?

Ions

8

Hydrophobic molecules would enter a cell
A. through integral transport proteins.
B. by passive transport directly across the membrane.
C. by active transport directly across the membrane.

B

9

What is a hallmark of passive transport across cell membranes?
A. It requires the use of ATP.

B. It occurs along an electrochemical gradient, and may involve the use of transport proteins.

C. It may involve the use of transport proteins.

D. It cannot occur without assistance from an integral membrane protein.

E. It occurs along an electrochemical gradient.

B

10

A positively charged sodium ion
A. freely diffuses directly across the cell membrane.
B. would require the use of integral protein channels to pass through a cell membrane.
C. would get stuck in the hydrophobic core of the membrane.

B

11

Which of the following statements regarding active transport is false?
A. It powers the diffusion of water across the cell membrane.
B. It requires the use of a transport protein.
C. It requires ATP.

A

12

How does water enter and exit a cell?
A. By use of a peripheral transport protein
B. By simple diffusion or by use of an integral transport protein
C. By use of an integral transport protein
D. By simple diffusion across the membrane

B

13

A glycoprotein
A. is a type of peripheral protein.
B. is a type of peripheral protein above that can be used as a receptor or in enzymatic functions.
C. can be used as a receptor.
D. can be used in enzymatic functions

B

14

What makes phospholipid membranes good at keeping some molecules out, while allowing others to freely pass through?

They have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.

15

Which transport protein employs transporters that move molecules in only one direction?

Uniport and Symport

16

Axial filaments are composed of...

endoflagella

17

Which of the following molecules would be blocked by a cell membrane?

Ions

18

You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell

has a cell wall.

19

True OR False?
The cell membrane is a fluid structure that allows membrane proteins to move freely.

True

20

True OR False?
Acid-fast bacteria demonstrate unique staining properties because of a special protein layer found in their cell walls.

False

21

True OR False?
The endosymbiotic theory states that eukaryotic organelles evolved from symbiotic prokaryotes living within other prokaryotes.

True

22

Streptobacilli

Occur in chains

23

Spirochetes

Are helical AND flexible
Move using axial filaments (resemble flagella but are internal)

24

Shape is determined by ______

Heredity

25

Some bacteria are pleomorphic, meaning that they...

Can have many shapes

26

Bacteria without Flagella are called:

Atrichous

27

What are the 3 basic parts of Flagella?

1. Filament
2. Hook
3. Basal Body

28

Bacterial cells can alter the ____ & _____ of rotation of flagella, which makes it capable of patterns of ______.

-Speed and Direction
-Motility

29

All Living Cells can be classified into 2 groups.Name them______________ and _____________.

Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes

30

Prokaryotic cells include _________ and _________.

bacteria and archaea

31

True or false?
It is estimated that 99% of the bacteria in nature exist in biofilm

True

32

Tails of phospholipids are ______ the polar heads are ______.

hydrophobic
hydrophillic