Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (28)
Loading flashcards...


process through which we develop knowledge of our culture and a distinct sense of self
-experiences and environment affect the expression of biological potential


Social Reproduction

the passing on of a societies ideas and practices through time (passing on of norms)
-The process of perpetuating values, norms, and social practices through socialization, which leads to structural continuity over time


Charles Horton Cooley

-Looking Glass Self- a sense of self grows from interactions with others
-what we perceive to be the reaction of others contributes to our conception of ourselves


George Herbert Mead

seeing self as from anothers point of view
-thinking about what others think of you
-The game "house" or "School" is based on Role Play; shared expectations for behavior


Primary Group

a small group with intimate, cooperative and face to face relationships
-plays a pivotal role in socialization (important)
-emotional connections (love, hate)
ex: family


Generalized Other

awareness of the groups expectations
-the general values + moral rules of the culture in which they are developing
-A concept described by George Herbert Mead according to which the individual comes to understand the general values and moral rules of a given group or society during the socialization process.


Self-I/ Me Combination

individual personality/ perspective of others
-Me: perspective of others
-I: personality


Jean Piaget

4 stage theory of Cognitive Development
-kids don't just acquire more info as they grow, how they think changes over time
-thinking changes as children grow older
4 Stages:
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational


Jean Piaget 4 Stage Theory: Sensorimotor

-1st stage
-According to Piaget, a stage of human cognitive development in which a child's awareness of his environment is dominated by perception and touch


Jean Piaget 4 Stage Theory: Preoperational

-2nd stage
-A stage of cognitive development, in Piaget's theory, in which a child has advanced sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought.


Jean Piaget 4 Stage Theory: Concrete Operational

-3rd stage
-A stage of cognitive development, as formulated by Piaget, in which a child's thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world. In this phase, the child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations


Jean Piaget 4 Stage Theory: Formal Operational

-4th stage
-According to Piaget's theory, a stage of cognitive development at which a growing child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations


Object Permanence

no sense of cause or time
-childrens social experiences foster cognitive development
-really small babies don't have this


Sigmund Freud

-psychoanalytic perspective: stresses inborn drives; personality and behaviors originate from unconscious forces
-Id: "Inner baby", selfish demands
-Ego: Balance, rational mind
-Super Ego: conscience


Agents of Socialization

-Groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization take place
-family: influences gender roles
-social class: affects how children are raised


Peer Group

A friendship group composed of individuals of similar age and social status



The system found in small traditional cultures by which people belonging to a similar age group are categorized together and hold similar rights and obligations


Mass Media

Forms of communication, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television, designed to reach mass audiences.


Social Roles

Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status, or social position


Anticipatory Socialization

"rehearsals" for future roles
ex: student teacher, or first job- take things from it that you will use for future roles



out with the old, in with the new
-set aside old rules + replacing them with new rules + identity
ex: marines
-voluntary/ involuntary (prison)



The distinctive characteristics of a person's or group's character that relate to who they are and what is meaningful to them.


Social Identity

The characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others


Self- Identity

The ongoing process of self-development and definition of our personal identity through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us.



Awareness of one's distinct social identity as a person separate from others


Nature/ Nurture

-Biology- raw material shaped by experiences and environment
-Sociobiology- An approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.


Natural Growth

grow into fullness without the need of focus
-working class + poor
-fewer structures activities
-parents give commands. Kids less skilled in dealing with authority figures


Concerted Cultivation

-professional/ upper middle class
-child as a "project"
-fosters the talents, opinions and skills of children as well as their sense of importance