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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (27):
1

Memory

active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and stores it. Retrieves information from storage.

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Encoding

Converts sensory information to a form usable in the brains storage systems through attention, processing, elaboration and mental imagery.

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Storage

holding onto information for some period of time.

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Retrieval

Recalling stored information in a form that can be used.

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Info-processing Model

information is processed across three stages.

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Levels of Processing Model

information that is 'deeply processed'. Processed according to meaning rather than just sound or physical characteristics of words.

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Parallel Distributed Processing Model (PDP)

simultaneous processing, memories stretched across brain. Able to retrieve many aspects of a memory at once. Neuroscience of memory.

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Encoding Process

first stage of memory. Information enters nervous system through sensory systems -encodes information into neural messages.

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Iconic Sensory Memory

visual sensory memory. Only lasts a sec (1/4-1/2). Helps visual system view surrounding continuously -long enough for brain stem to evaluate importance.

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Echoic Sensory Memory

auditory sensory memory, a brief memory of something just heard. Allows memory to remain long enough for meaningful conversation. Smaller than capacity of iconic last longer than iconic- 2 to 4 seconds

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Capacity

Limited to what can be heard at any one moment.

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Atkinson-Shiffrin

Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
Memory system where info is held for brief periods of time while being used

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Baddley’s Model

Sensory memory, working memory, long term memory.
A working memory not really short term, but a process. Active systems that process information in short term memory.
3 processes: central executive: controls other processes., sketch pad: visual- visuopatial, Recording: auditory-phonological loop.

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Short term memory

Capacity of story term is 7+2 bits of information without a strategy to retain the information for 30 decode

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7+2 rule

(George Miller) unfamiliar words, information result in further reductions

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Digit span test

Series of numbers read to subjects. Subjects are asked to recall the numbers in order

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Chunking

Combining information meaning units or chucks, more indie can be held in short term memory.

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Mnemonic Device

Memory tools users to make memorization easier. Can be used for both short term and long term

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Maintenance rehearsal

Information to be remembered is repeated over and over again mentally maintains it in short term memory. Short term memory tends to be encoded in auditory form.

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Long term memory

System of memory where information is placed to be kept permanently. A physical change in brain takes place with Long term memory storage.

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Elaborative Rehearsal

Information transferred from short term memory to long term memory by making it meaningful- deeper processing occurs with long term memory

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Procedural (non-declarative or implicit memory)

Includes memory of skills procedures, habits and conditioned responses. These memories are not conciliatory- implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. Includes emotional association, habits and simple conditioned reflexes.

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Anterograde Amnesia

Damage to hippocampus. New memory cannot be made. Usually doesn’t affect procedural tong term memory

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Declarative (Explicit) long term memory

All the things that people know

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Semantic Memory

General knowledge- language, info in formal education explicit memory

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Episodic Memory

Knowledge of personal information- autobiographical memory- not available to others. Includes daily activities and events. Explicit memory

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Explicit memory

Memory that is consciously known and can be voiced