Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (27):
active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and stores it. Retrieves information from storage.
Converts sensory information to a form usable in the brains storage systems through attention, processing, elaboration and mental imagery.
holding onto information for some period of time.
Recalling stored information in a form that can be used.
information is processed across three stages.
Levels of Processing Model
information that is 'deeply processed'. Processed according to meaning rather than just sound or physical characteristics of words.
Parallel Distributed Processing Model (PDP)
simultaneous processing, memories stretched across brain. Able to retrieve many aspects of a memory at once. Neuroscience of memory.
first stage of memory. Information enters nervous system through sensory systems -encodes information into neural messages.
Iconic Sensory Memory
visual sensory memory. Only lasts a sec (1/4-1/2). Helps visual system view surrounding continuously -long enough for brain stem to evaluate importance.
Echoic Sensory Memory
auditory sensory memory, a brief memory of something just heard. Allows memory to remain long enough for meaningful conversation. Smaller than capacity of iconic last longer than iconic- 2 to 4 seconds
Limited to what can be heard at any one moment.
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
Memory system where info is held for brief periods of time while being used
Sensory memory, working memory, long term memory.
A working memory not really short term, but a process. Active systems that process information in short term memory.
3 processes: central executive: controls other processes., sketch pad: visual- visuopatial, Recording: auditory-phonological loop.
Short term memory
Capacity of story term is 7+2 bits of information without a strategy to retain the information for 30 decode
(George Miller) unfamiliar words, information result in further reductions
Digit span test
Series of numbers read to subjects. Subjects are asked to recall the numbers in order
Combining information meaning units or chucks, more indie can be held in short term memory.
Memory tools users to make memorization easier. Can be used for both short term and long term
Information to be remembered is repeated over and over again mentally maintains it in short term memory. Short term memory tends to be encoded in auditory form.
Long term memory
System of memory where information is placed to be kept permanently. A physical change in brain takes place with Long term memory storage.
Information transferred from short term memory to long term memory by making it meaningful- deeper processing occurs with long term memory
Procedural (non-declarative or implicit memory)
Includes memory of skills procedures, habits and conditioned responses. These memories are not conciliatory- implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. Includes emotional association, habits and simple conditioned reflexes.
Damage to hippocampus. New memory cannot be made. Usually doesn’t affect procedural tong term memory
Declarative (Explicit) long term memory
All the things that people know
General knowledge- language, info in formal education explicit memory
Knowledge of personal information- autobiographical memory- not available to others. Includes daily activities and events. Explicit memory