Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (27):
1

Explain how an infant conceived through IVF could have 5 parents.

Sperm donor, egg donor, surragate mother, mother and father.

2

Name the 3 phases of the prenatal period and describe how these fit into the trimesters into which most parents divide the prenatal period.

Germinal period (weeks 1 and 2); embryonic period (weeks 3-8) and fetal period (9th week on).
First trimester 1-12 weeks, second trimester 13-24 weeks and third trimester 25-36 weeks.

3

Describe the main events of the embryonic period and timing.

Third-eighth week; every major organ takes shape in at least a primitive form; development at a breath taking pace; important period when much damage can take place.

4

Describe the main events of the fetal period and timing.

Week 9 - embryo becomes fetus
Week 10-12 - movements have increased substantially
Week 13-16 heart beat audible, skeleton becomes harder
Weeks 17-22 - brain development
Weeks 23-25 - age of viability
Weeks 26-32 - nervous system better organized
Weeks 33 - 36- lungs mature; ready for delivery

5

Proliferation

Neurons multiply at staggering rate

6

Migration

Neurons move from their place of origin in the center of the brain to particular locations throughout the brain. where they become part of specialized functioning. Influenced by genetic instructions.

7

Differentiation

Transformation of cells; neurons evolve into a particular type of function based on where they land following migration.

8

Describe how 3 generations of people may be affected by prenatal environmental factors such as smoking.

Mother to be smokes, it affects her fetus and also affects the reproductive cells in the fetus.

9

Describe five teratogens and their impact on developing fetus.

Thalidomide - birth defects affecting fetuses at different stages of development - missing limbs, deformed eyes
Alcohol- disrupts process of neuronal migration
Cocaine - spontaneous abortion
STD - HIV
Smoking - cleft lip

10

Name effects of maternal smoking

Increased risk of miscarriage, prematurity, growth retardation, small size, respiratory problems, cleft lip, risk of SIDS.
Through smoking blood flow is restricted to the fetus restricting the levels of growth factors, oxygen and nutrients.

11

What amount of alcohol drinking during pregnancy appears to be safe?

None, alcohol crosses the placenta

12

Describe the causes and effects of fetal anoxia during birth.

Causes - pinched or tangled umbilical cord; sedatives given to mother, baby is breech.
Effects - brain cells die resulting in poor reflexes, seizures, heart rate irregularities, breathing difficulties

13

Discuss 4 differing cultural practices surrounding birth.

Kenya - community celebration of coming birth
India - Dai (hands on birth)
Namibia - women go off on their own to deliver child
Western societies - medicalized birth in hospital

14

How does postpartum depression in mothers affect their infants?

It disrupts the parent child relationship as their are negative interactions.

15

Discuss risk and resilience, including damaging effects that are irreversible and the Werner and Smith findings about the outcomes of at-risk infants.

Not all at risk infants develop later problems. Study by Werner and Smith showed that one third of the at risk children in the study showed resilience and got back on course. The effects of prenatal and perinatal complications decrease over time. The outcomes of early risk depend on the quality of post natal environment.

16

blastocyst

Zygote divides forming this; hollow ball of about 150 cells

17

Age of viability

When survival outside the uterus is possible if brain and respiratory systems are developed

18

Myelin

Fatty sheath that insulates neural axons and speeds the transmission of neural impulses.

19

Teratogen

A disease, drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus.

20

Couvade

"Pregnancy" like symptoms in a father.

21

Apgar Test

A quick assessment of newborns heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone and reflexes that is scored.

22

Critical period

A defined period when the fetus is sensitive to environmental influences. Outside this period, the influences will have less effects.

23

Sensitive period

A period of life during which the developing individual is especially susceptible to the effects of experience or has an especially high level of plasticity.

24

Spina bifida

Part of spinal cord not fully encased in covering.

25

Anencephaly

Affects the brain; failure to close at the top of the neural tube.

26

Anoxia

Lack of oxygen during birth

27

Epigenetic effects

Gene expression modified by environmental effects.