Chapter 4: Biological Development Throughout the Life Span Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Biological Development Throughout the Life Span Deck (164):
1

Psychologists studying development make a distinction between developmental changes that are the result of ____ versus changes due to maturation.

learning

2

_____ is a term used to describe a genetically programmed biological plan of development that is relatively independent of experience.

maturation

3

Changes in teh three ares of development --- biological development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development -- differ in the degree to which they are controlled by _____ versus maturation.

experience

4

Biological development is an area controlled substantially by ____ but still affected to some degree by environmental influences.

maturation

5

Evolutionary psychologists study species ______, that is the traits and behaviors that are common in all humans.

heredity

6

Thousands of ____ on the 46 chromosomes found in the nucleus of each cell in the human body control inheritance.

genes

7

Chromosomes are arranged in _____.

pairs

8

____ of these pairs are called autosomes and carry genetic material that controls all of our characteristics with the exception of biological sex.

22

9

The 22 pairs of autosomes are the ___ in males and females.

same

10

The two chromosomes of the 23rd pair are called the ____.

sex chromosomes

11

In normal females, the sex chromosomes pair is _____.

XX

12

In normal males, the sex chromosome pair is ____.

XY

13

Biological parents pass on one set of 23 chromosomes in each ______ or _____.

sperm cell
ovum

14

The mother can only pass on an ____ sex chromosome since she has an XX pair.

X

15

The father can pass on _____ chromosome in each sperm cell.

either an X or Y

16

The biological father's sperm cell determines the ____ of the offspring.

sex

17

When the sperm cell of the biological father penetrates and fertilizes an ovum (egg cell) from the biological mother, ____ occurs and a _____ is formed.

conception
zygote

18

The ____ contains the 23 pairs of chromosomes that control its maturation.

zygote

19

Some of the genes controlling our characteristics are dominant while others are _____.

recessive

20

A _____ gene will always be expressed regardless of what type of gene it is paired with.

dominant

21

A ___ trait can only be expressed as a characteristic of the individual if the individual inherited a recessive recessive pair gene pair.

recessive

22

_____ is term used to describe all of the traits carried in a person's genetic material, including recessive traits.

genotype

23

The characteristics that are actually expressed are referred to as an individual's _____.

phenotype

24

_____ is available to help couples make decisions about childbearing given their chances of passing on genetic diseases to their offspring.

genetic counselling

25

Some developmental abnormalities have a genetic basis, but there are several different mechanisms of ____ that produce an individual inherits these abnormalities.

inheritance

26

_____ gene pair inheritance is when an individual inherits a gen pair that controls a trait or causes a diseas.

single

27

Sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, ____ huntington's disease and tay-sachs disease are all caused by single gene-pair inheritance. All of these are recesive traits, except for _____.

PKU
huntington's disease

28

_____ inheritance is when a trait or disease like color blindness or hemophilia is carried by a gene on the sex chromosomes.

sex-linked

29

_____ inheritance is when multiple genes work together to produce a trait. Most of our traits are controlled by this type of inheritance.

polygenetic

30

Abnormalities can also be caused by chromosomal abnormalities and ______.

genetic mutations

31

A _____ is a change to the structure of inherited genetic material that occurs spontaneously or is the result of envirnomnetal toxins.

genetic mutation

32

______ abnormalities occur if a child has inherited too few, too many, or abnormal chromosomes.

chromosomal

33

Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is caused by having ___ rather than two chromosomes at the 21st position.

three

34

Turner syndrome occurs when a female is born with only one ___ chromosme.

X

35

Kleinefelter's syndrome occurs when a male is born with an extra ____ chromosem.

X

36

The ____ is the system of the body responsible for managing hormone levels in the blood stream.

endocrine system

37

The ___ gland is called the master gland because it causes other glands to secrete hormones.

pituitary

38

The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus of the ____.

brain

39

The pituitary gland secretes _____ which stimulates physical growth and development.

growth hormone (GH)

40

____ secreted from the pituitary gland stimulate the adolescent growth spurt.

hormones

41

The ____ gland also controls physical growth and development and development of the nervous system.

thyroid

42

The thyroid gland secretes the hormone _____. Without adequate levels of this infants become mentally retarded. Early treatment is effective and children who develop a ____ deficiency after brain maturation is completed have stunted physical growth but no intellectual disability.

thyroxin
thyroxin

43

Males and females have differing levels of ____ hormones in the body.

sex

44

Sex hormones called ____ control the development of sex organs as well as secondary sex characteristics.

androgens

45

The _____ secrete the male hormone testosterone which stimulates the development of male reproductive organs in the fetus and inhibits the development of the female reproductive organs.

testes

46

In the ___ month of prenatal development, the penis and scrotum appear in the male and female genitalia are present in the female.

third

47

In females, the ovaries are the _____ glands that control sexual maturation.

endocrine

48

Ovaries produce ______ and progesterone.

estrogen

49

There is a relationship between ____ and hormone secretions in the body.

stress

50

Under stressful conditions, the body secretes stress hormones that control our body's ______ response.

flight or fight

51

______ and cortisol are some of these stress hormones.

Adrenalin

52

Researchers suggest the long-term effect of high ____ levels in the blood is reduced immune response.

cortisol

53

During pregnancy, stress is _____ because it draws blood flow away from the fetus and to the muscles of the mother which deprives the fetus of oxygen.

debilatative

54

Adrenalin and cortisol can pass through the ______ and cause an increase in fetal heart rate. This can cause stunted prenatal growth, low birth weight and ____ complications.

placenta
birth

55

Studies suggest that infants born to mothers who were stressed during pregnancy have a _____ reactivity to stress in their own life and reduced physcholigcal ability to manage stress in their own life.

heightened

56

_____ development refers to the period of development from conception to birth and divided into three trimesters.

prenatal

57

The ____ trimester, or germinal period, lasts for the first 13 weeks of the pregnancy.

first

58

The _____ trimester, or period of the embryo, lasts from the 14th to the 27th week.

second

59

The _____ trimester or period of the ____, lasts from the 28th week until birth.

third
fetus

60

The average pregnancy lasts ____ days or 40 weeks.

270

61

There are two type of ____ pairs.

twin

62

______ pairs or identical twins.

monozygotic

63

____ pairs or fraternal twins.

dizygotic

64

Dizygotic twins are the result of ____ ova being fertilized by two different sperm cells at the same time.

two

65

______ involves injecting sperm from the father into the uterus of his partner.

artificial insemination

66

____ fertilization is wen a sperm cell fertilizes an ovum outside the mother's body and then the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus.

in vitro

67

The ____ provides nourishment and allows wastes to pass out to the mother. It develops during the first trimester or the _____ stage.

placenta
germinal

68

The _____ cord carries nourishment from and waste to the placenta. Thin membranes keep fatal and maternal blood streams separate.

umbilical cord

69

During the embryo stage the embryo is only about an ___ long at the end.

inch

70

Major birth defects are often due to problems that occur during the ____ stage.

embryo

71

The _____ is a fluid filled sac that surrounds the embryo, protects and provides a constant temperature for the embryo.

amniotic sac

72

During the ____ stage muscles and bones form. Vital organs continue to grow and begin to function.

fetus or third trimester

73

During the last three months of prenatal develop the ____ develops rapidly.

brain

74

A babies heart begins to pump during the _____ weeks.

3rd and 4th

75

During the ____ week eyes begin to form as well as the digestive system.

4th

76

Prenatal development is most successful if the mother has good prenatal medical care, good nutrition and is between the ages of 16 and ____.

35

77

______ are many agents that may cross the placental barrier from mother to embryo/fetus causing abnormalities.

teratogens

78

Possible teratogens include maternal diseases, diet, drug use, exposure to x rays and _____.

other environmental influences

79

What abnormalities occur from teratogens depend on the _____ of exposure, what is developing prenatally, as well as what the harmful agent is.

time

80

During the ____ and ____ trimester so many vital organs and body parts are developing during these stages, harmful agents are especially dangerous. This time is called the ____.

first and third
critical period

81

_____ involves testing fetal cells in amniotic fluid removed from the amniotic sac in the uterus for indicators of genetic abnormalities.

amniocentesis

82

The disadvantage of an amniocentesis is that is cannot be doe until the ____ week of pregnancy.

16th

83

_______ can be done as early as the sixth week of pregnancy.

chorionic villus sampling (CVS).

84

In CVS, tiny ____ cells of a membrane surrounding the fetus (called the chorion) are extracted via a small tube inserted into the vagina. These cells contain genetic material from the fetus.

hair

85

The birth process is a several stage process including labor, delivery of the fetus, and _____ of teh placenta.

delivery

86

______ is a condition caused by reduced oxygen from to the fetus during birth.

anoxia

87

The harm to the baby from anoxia depends on the degree and ____ of the oxygen deprivation.

length of time

88

The ____ was developed as a quick way to assess the overall condition of the neonates immediately after birth and again ____ minutes after birth.

Apgar scale

89

_________ is an alternative birthing method in which the fetus is surgicaly removed from the uterus of the mother.

caesarian section

90

For the first ____ years after birth, there is a brain growth spurt involving both the production of neurons and neural circuits, as well as this pruning.

two years

91

There are two hemispheres of the ____ of the human brain.

cerebral cortex

92

In most people, the ____ hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the ____ hemisphere controls the left side.

left
right

93

The ___ hemisphere generally controls language processing.

left

94

The ____ hemisphere controls spatial processing although this is an oversimplification.

right

95

The specialization of the hemispheres is called brain ________.

lateralization

96

The ____ is a reflex causing the extention of arms when an infant feels a loss of support.

moro

97

The ____ reflex occurs when the toes spread as the bottom of the foot is stimulated.

babinski

98

____ is a reflex in which by squeezing any object placed in the hand.

grasping

99

The ____ reflex and the eye blink reflex, that protects the eye from injury, have survival value.

suckling reflex

100

The _______ principle of development describes the center-out-ward direction of motor development.

proximodistal
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities

101

The ____ principle describes the head-to-foot direction of motor development.

cephalocaudal
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper portions of the bodies before the lower part.

102

Children generally master ____ motor skills, before ___ motor skills.

gross
fine

103

Gross motor skills require the coordination of ____ parts of the body, while fine motor skills involve ____, coordinated movements of the hands, fingers and toes.

large
small

104

Infants show a fairly well-developed ____ motor skill of manipulating objects with their fingers by about 9 to 12 months of age.

fine

105

The average newborn is ____ inches long and weighs between ____ pounds.

20 inches
7 to 7.5 lbs

106

Infants reach about half of their adult height by the age of ____.

two

107

The period of infancy shows rapid growth called a _____.

growth spurt

108

_____ is the coating of the part of a neuron called the axon with fatty material. This may be what is responsible for the increased reaction time in older compared to younger children.

myelination

109

During childhood, and throughout the rest of life, the _____ circuitry of the brain continues to change and develop.

neural

110

In childhood, brain laterilzation becomes stronger as parts of the cortex take over ____ functions.

different

111

The part of the cerebral cortex called the ____ cortex maturing during adolescence.

prefrontal

112

The prefrontal cortex is responsible for _____ thinking and processing of complex information.

higher order

113

The full weight of the brain is achieved by the age of ____.

16

114

The adolescent growth spurt in males is triggered by the _____ secreting large amounts of testosterone and other male sex hormones.

testes

115

The increase in ______ levels in the blood causes a rapid growth spurt and growth of male sex organs.

androgen

116

GH and ______ are also secreted in larger quantities and stimulate body size increases and skeletal maturity.

thyroxin

117

In females, the _____ secrete an increased amount of estrogen which in turn triggers the production of GH and leads to the female adolescent growth spurt.

ovaries

118

The female hormone secretions during the growth spurt stimulate the development of the breasts, pubic hair, uterus, and _____. They also trigger an increase in fat storage.

vagina

119

The adrenal glands, which produce adrenalin, also contribute to bone and muscle growth and physical maturation in ______.

females

120

Females reach their full height by around the age of ____, four years ahead of males.

16

121

Along with the adolescent growth spurt is _____, achieving full sexual maturity.

puberty

122

Females generally are thought to have reached puberty at ______ (the first menstrual cycle) although some girls may not be able to produce for several years after menarche.

menarche

123

The average age of menarch is ____ years but can range in ages from 11 to 15.

12 1/2

124

At about age ______, boys will experience their first ejaculation which marks puberty for them. However, ejaculation does not necessarily mean sperm are viable enough to reproduce.

13

125

The ____ of the adolescent growth spurt has been shown to have psychosocial affects on adolescents.

timing

126

______ maturing boys and late maturing girls tend to have the best psychosocial outcomes.

early

127

Late maturing boys and ____ maturing girls fair worse in psychosocial otucomes.

early

128

Early maturing boys may benefit from being ______ and appearing older than their late maturing counterparts.

larger

129

Early maturing girls, on the other hand, may face challenges from having and early _____ and/or because other people may treat them as if they were more mature and expect them to act as if they were older.

menarche

130

There is a growing concern in our country about the rising rates of _____ in children and adolescents.

obesity

131

______ is defined as weighing 20 percent more than the average for people of similar age, height, body type and sex.

obesity

132

Obesity correlates with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and ______ problems.

liver and kidney

133

Adolescents have a greater risk of obesity than _____ because their metabolism rates start to decline. This risk continues to climb in adulthood as metabolism continues to slow down.

children

134

The brain continues to show plasticity and develops/prunes _____ circuits throughout the adulthood. However, along with this growth there are declines that are the result of normal or biological aging.

neural

135

Normal changes in the brain include a slowing of the transmission of neural messages, decreased blood flow to the brain, loss of neurons, loss of brain weight, and decreased amount of ______ - the chemicals that form connections between neurons at the synapses. There is a slowing of neural processign associated with normal aging and a loss of brain mass, but new neural circuits can continue to be formed to replace those lost.

neurotransmitters

136

The body reaches full adult size at the end of ______.

adolescence.

137

Most of the physical functions of the body are at peak levels of performance in early adulthood and then begin a slow, but steady, ______.

decline

138

Researchers studying aging generally agree that there is an inevitable process of ________ that eventually would cause death even in the absence of disease.

biological aging

139

Maximum length of life is different from ________.

life expectancy

140

_______ is the average length of life expected for members of a particular birth cohort.

life expectancy

141

Researchers ______ on the nature and cause of biological aging. One theory, the wear and tear theory, suggests the human body, like a machine, eventually wears out from normal use. However, continued physical activity in adulthood has been shown to correlate with both physical activity in adulthood has been shown to correlate with both physical as well as ______.

disagree
mental health

142

Some researchers argue that biological aging is in part due to the gradual failure of the ______.

endocrine system

143

The gradual decrease in ___ that occurs with age is associated with loss of muscle and bone mass, an increase in body fat, thinning of the skin, and a decrease in cardiovascular functioning.

GH

144

Diet and ______ have been found to partially mitigate these effects.

physical exercise

145

A decrease in secretions from the _____ is also correlated with age.

thymus

146

Secretions from the thymus help in the body's immune _____.

response

147

Stress hormones discussed earlier also decrease the body's _____.

immune response

148

Hormones also control the _______ or menopause in females.

climacteric

149

The climateric is the _______ of a female's reproductive capacity.

cessation

150

The climacteric typically spans a ____ period and usually begins in a woman's early fifties.

10 year

151

A drop in estrogen levels in the body triggers the ____.

climacteric.

152

Lowered levels of estrogen in the body cause changes in the female's ______.

sex organs

153

Organs shrink and genitals react more slowly to _______ during menopause.

stimulation

154

______ helps protect against plaque build up on the walls of arteries and helps maintain good bone mas density.

estrogen

155

Lowered levels of estrogen are also associated with mood fluctuations, hot flashes, and _____.

night sweats

156

Hormone therapies have been developed to combat the side effects of menopause. Hormone treatments include _____, which is normally used only with women who have had hysterectomies, or hormone replacement theory.

ERT estrogen replacement therapy

157

There is ongoing controversy about the risks associated with ERT and HRT. If administered late in menopause, HRT may increase the patient's risk for developing ______, but if started earlier, may actually reduce this risk.

Alzheimer's disease

158

_____ has been shown in some studies to increase the risk of breast cancer and blood clots.

ERT

159

The male climacteric is caused by decreasing amounts of _____, but it is more gradual, less obvious process compared to the female climacteric. Some men may never lose their reproductive capacity.

testosterone

160

It is difficult to determine if changes in sexual activity or a male's sexual arousal is due to _______ or other factors.

hormone levels

161

There is a gradual loss of bone density associated with _____.

aging.

162

The loss of bone mass is due to decreased levels of calcium and _____ in the body.

GH

163

Loss of bone density can lead to a bone disease called _____ in which bones are very brittle and may spontaneously fracture.

osteoporosis

164

_____ and calcium supplements have been found to help prevent osteoporosis.

physical activity