Flashcards in Chapter 4: Biological Development Throughout the Life Span Deck (164):
Psychologists studying development make a distinction between developmental changes that are the result of ____ versus changes due to maturation.
_____ is a term used to describe a genetically programmed biological plan of development that is relatively independent of experience.
Changes in teh three ares of development --- biological development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development -- differ in the degree to which they are controlled by _____ versus maturation.
Biological development is an area controlled substantially by ____ but still affected to some degree by environmental influences.
Evolutionary psychologists study species ______, that is the traits and behaviors that are common in all humans.
Thousands of ____ on the 46 chromosomes found in the nucleus of each cell in the human body control inheritance.
Chromosomes are arranged in _____.
____ of these pairs are called autosomes and carry genetic material that controls all of our characteristics with the exception of biological sex.
The 22 pairs of autosomes are the ___ in males and females.
The two chromosomes of the 23rd pair are called the ____.
In normal females, the sex chromosomes pair is _____.
In normal males, the sex chromosome pair is ____.
Biological parents pass on one set of 23 chromosomes in each ______ or _____.
The mother can only pass on an ____ sex chromosome since she has an XX pair.
The father can pass on _____ chromosome in each sperm cell.
either an X or Y
The biological father's sperm cell determines the ____ of the offspring.
When the sperm cell of the biological father penetrates and fertilizes an ovum (egg cell) from the biological mother, ____ occurs and a _____ is formed.
The ____ contains the 23 pairs of chromosomes that control its maturation.
Some of the genes controlling our characteristics are dominant while others are _____.
A _____ gene will always be expressed regardless of what type of gene it is paired with.
A ___ trait can only be expressed as a characteristic of the individual if the individual inherited a recessive recessive pair gene pair.
_____ is term used to describe all of the traits carried in a person's genetic material, including recessive traits.
The characteristics that are actually expressed are referred to as an individual's _____.
_____ is available to help couples make decisions about childbearing given their chances of passing on genetic diseases to their offspring.
Some developmental abnormalities have a genetic basis, but there are several different mechanisms of ____ that produce an individual inherits these abnormalities.
_____ gene pair inheritance is when an individual inherits a gen pair that controls a trait or causes a diseas.
Sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, ____ huntington's disease and tay-sachs disease are all caused by single gene-pair inheritance. All of these are recesive traits, except for _____.
_____ inheritance is when a trait or disease like color blindness or hemophilia is carried by a gene on the sex chromosomes.
_____ inheritance is when multiple genes work together to produce a trait. Most of our traits are controlled by this type of inheritance.
Abnormalities can also be caused by chromosomal abnormalities and ______.
A _____ is a change to the structure of inherited genetic material that occurs spontaneously or is the result of envirnomnetal toxins.
______ abnormalities occur if a child has inherited too few, too many, or abnormal chromosomes.
Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, is caused by having ___ rather than two chromosomes at the 21st position.
Turner syndrome occurs when a female is born with only one ___ chromosme.
Kleinefelter's syndrome occurs when a male is born with an extra ____ chromosem.
The ____ is the system of the body responsible for managing hormone levels in the blood stream.
The ___ gland is called the master gland because it causes other glands to secrete hormones.
The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus of the ____.
The pituitary gland secretes _____ which stimulates physical growth and development.
growth hormone (GH)
____ secreted from the pituitary gland stimulate the adolescent growth spurt.
The ____ gland also controls physical growth and development and development of the nervous system.
The thyroid gland secretes the hormone _____. Without adequate levels of this infants become mentally retarded. Early treatment is effective and children who develop a ____ deficiency after brain maturation is completed have stunted physical growth but no intellectual disability.
Males and females have differing levels of ____ hormones in the body.
Sex hormones called ____ control the development of sex organs as well as secondary sex characteristics.
The _____ secrete the male hormone testosterone which stimulates the development of male reproductive organs in the fetus and inhibits the development of the female reproductive organs.
In the ___ month of prenatal development, the penis and scrotum appear in the male and female genitalia are present in the female.
In females, the ovaries are the _____ glands that control sexual maturation.
Ovaries produce ______ and progesterone.
There is a relationship between ____ and hormone secretions in the body.
Under stressful conditions, the body secretes stress hormones that control our body's ______ response.
flight or fight
______ and cortisol are some of these stress hormones.
Researchers suggest the long-term effect of high ____ levels in the blood is reduced immune response.
During pregnancy, stress is _____ because it draws blood flow away from the fetus and to the muscles of the mother which deprives the fetus of oxygen.
Adrenalin and cortisol can pass through the ______ and cause an increase in fetal heart rate. This can cause stunted prenatal growth, low birth weight and ____ complications.
Studies suggest that infants born to mothers who were stressed during pregnancy have a _____ reactivity to stress in their own life and reduced physcholigcal ability to manage stress in their own life.
_____ development refers to the period of development from conception to birth and divided into three trimesters.
The ____ trimester, or germinal period, lasts for the first 13 weeks of the pregnancy.
The _____ trimester, or period of the embryo, lasts from the 14th to the 27th week.
The _____ trimester or period of the ____, lasts from the 28th week until birth.
The average pregnancy lasts ____ days or 40 weeks.
There are two type of ____ pairs.
______ pairs or identical twins.
____ pairs or fraternal twins.
Dizygotic twins are the result of ____ ova being fertilized by two different sperm cells at the same time.
______ involves injecting sperm from the father into the uterus of his partner.
____ fertilization is wen a sperm cell fertilizes an ovum outside the mother's body and then the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus.
The ____ provides nourishment and allows wastes to pass out to the mother. It develops during the first trimester or the _____ stage.
The _____ cord carries nourishment from and waste to the placenta. Thin membranes keep fatal and maternal blood streams separate.
During the embryo stage the embryo is only about an ___ long at the end.
Major birth defects are often due to problems that occur during the ____ stage.
The _____ is a fluid filled sac that surrounds the embryo, protects and provides a constant temperature for the embryo.
During the ____ stage muscles and bones form. Vital organs continue to grow and begin to function.
fetus or third trimester
During the last three months of prenatal develop the ____ develops rapidly.
A babies heart begins to pump during the _____ weeks.
3rd and 4th
During the ____ week eyes begin to form as well as the digestive system.
Prenatal development is most successful if the mother has good prenatal medical care, good nutrition and is between the ages of 16 and ____.
______ are many agents that may cross the placental barrier from mother to embryo/fetus causing abnormalities.
Possible teratogens include maternal diseases, diet, drug use, exposure to x rays and _____.
other environmental influences
What abnormalities occur from teratogens depend on the _____ of exposure, what is developing prenatally, as well as what the harmful agent is.
During the ____ and ____ trimester so many vital organs and body parts are developing during these stages, harmful agents are especially dangerous. This time is called the ____.
first and third
_____ involves testing fetal cells in amniotic fluid removed from the amniotic sac in the uterus for indicators of genetic abnormalities.
The disadvantage of an amniocentesis is that is cannot be doe until the ____ week of pregnancy.
_______ can be done as early as the sixth week of pregnancy.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS).
In CVS, tiny ____ cells of a membrane surrounding the fetus (called the chorion) are extracted via a small tube inserted into the vagina. These cells contain genetic material from the fetus.
The birth process is a several stage process including labor, delivery of the fetus, and _____ of teh placenta.
______ is a condition caused by reduced oxygen from to the fetus during birth.
The harm to the baby from anoxia depends on the degree and ____ of the oxygen deprivation.
length of time
The ____ was developed as a quick way to assess the overall condition of the neonates immediately after birth and again ____ minutes after birth.
_________ is an alternative birthing method in which the fetus is surgicaly removed from the uterus of the mother.
For the first ____ years after birth, there is a brain growth spurt involving both the production of neurons and neural circuits, as well as this pruning.
There are two hemispheres of the ____ of the human brain.
In most people, the ____ hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the ____ hemisphere controls the left side.
The ___ hemisphere generally controls language processing.
The ____ hemisphere controls spatial processing although this is an oversimplification.
The specialization of the hemispheres is called brain ________.
The ____ is a reflex causing the extention of arms when an infant feels a loss of support.
The ____ reflex occurs when the toes spread as the bottom of the foot is stimulated.
____ is a reflex in which by squeezing any object placed in the hand.
The ____ reflex and the eye blink reflex, that protects the eye from injury, have survival value.
The _______ principle of development describes the center-out-ward direction of motor development.
i.e. children gain control of their torso before their extremities
The ____ principle describes the head-to-foot direction of motor development.
i.e. children tend to gain control over the upper portions of the bodies before the lower part.
Children generally master ____ motor skills, before ___ motor skills.
Gross motor skills require the coordination of ____ parts of the body, while fine motor skills involve ____, coordinated movements of the hands, fingers and toes.
Infants show a fairly well-developed ____ motor skill of manipulating objects with their fingers by about 9 to 12 months of age.
The average newborn is ____ inches long and weighs between ____ pounds.
7 to 7.5 lbs
Infants reach about half of their adult height by the age of ____.
The period of infancy shows rapid growth called a _____.
_____ is the coating of the part of a neuron called the axon with fatty material. This may be what is responsible for the increased reaction time in older compared to younger children.
During childhood, and throughout the rest of life, the _____ circuitry of the brain continues to change and develop.
In childhood, brain laterilzation becomes stronger as parts of the cortex take over ____ functions.
The part of the cerebral cortex called the ____ cortex maturing during adolescence.
The prefrontal cortex is responsible for _____ thinking and processing of complex information.
The full weight of the brain is achieved by the age of ____.
The adolescent growth spurt in males is triggered by the _____ secreting large amounts of testosterone and other male sex hormones.
The increase in ______ levels in the blood causes a rapid growth spurt and growth of male sex organs.
GH and ______ are also secreted in larger quantities and stimulate body size increases and skeletal maturity.
In females, the _____ secrete an increased amount of estrogen which in turn triggers the production of GH and leads to the female adolescent growth spurt.
The female hormone secretions during the growth spurt stimulate the development of the breasts, pubic hair, uterus, and _____. They also trigger an increase in fat storage.
The adrenal glands, which produce adrenalin, also contribute to bone and muscle growth and physical maturation in ______.
Females reach their full height by around the age of ____, four years ahead of males.
Along with the adolescent growth spurt is _____, achieving full sexual maturity.
Females generally are thought to have reached puberty at ______ (the first menstrual cycle) although some girls may not be able to produce for several years after menarche.
The average age of menarch is ____ years but can range in ages from 11 to 15.
At about age ______, boys will experience their first ejaculation which marks puberty for them. However, ejaculation does not necessarily mean sperm are viable enough to reproduce.
The ____ of the adolescent growth spurt has been shown to have psychosocial affects on adolescents.
______ maturing boys and late maturing girls tend to have the best psychosocial outcomes.
Late maturing boys and ____ maturing girls fair worse in psychosocial otucomes.
Early maturing boys may benefit from being ______ and appearing older than their late maturing counterparts.
Early maturing girls, on the other hand, may face challenges from having and early _____ and/or because other people may treat them as if they were more mature and expect them to act as if they were older.
There is a growing concern in our country about the rising rates of _____ in children and adolescents.
______ is defined as weighing 20 percent more than the average for people of similar age, height, body type and sex.
Obesity correlates with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and ______ problems.
liver and kidney
Adolescents have a greater risk of obesity than _____ because their metabolism rates start to decline. This risk continues to climb in adulthood as metabolism continues to slow down.
The brain continues to show plasticity and develops/prunes _____ circuits throughout the adulthood. However, along with this growth there are declines that are the result of normal or biological aging.
Normal changes in the brain include a slowing of the transmission of neural messages, decreased blood flow to the brain, loss of neurons, loss of brain weight, and decreased amount of ______ - the chemicals that form connections between neurons at the synapses. There is a slowing of neural processign associated with normal aging and a loss of brain mass, but new neural circuits can continue to be formed to replace those lost.
The body reaches full adult size at the end of ______.
Most of the physical functions of the body are at peak levels of performance in early adulthood and then begin a slow, but steady, ______.
Researchers studying aging generally agree that there is an inevitable process of ________ that eventually would cause death even in the absence of disease.
Maximum length of life is different from ________.
_______ is the average length of life expected for members of a particular birth cohort.
Researchers ______ on the nature and cause of biological aging. One theory, the wear and tear theory, suggests the human body, like a machine, eventually wears out from normal use. However, continued physical activity in adulthood has been shown to correlate with both physical activity in adulthood has been shown to correlate with both physical as well as ______.
Some researchers argue that biological aging is in part due to the gradual failure of the ______.
The gradual decrease in ___ that occurs with age is associated with loss of muscle and bone mass, an increase in body fat, thinning of the skin, and a decrease in cardiovascular functioning.
Diet and ______ have been found to partially mitigate these effects.
A decrease in secretions from the _____ is also correlated with age.
Secretions from the thymus help in the body's immune _____.
Stress hormones discussed earlier also decrease the body's _____.
Hormones also control the _______ or menopause in females.
The climateric is the _______ of a female's reproductive capacity.
The climacteric typically spans a ____ period and usually begins in a woman's early fifties.
A drop in estrogen levels in the body triggers the ____.
Lowered levels of estrogen in the body cause changes in the female's ______.
Organs shrink and genitals react more slowly to _______ during menopause.
______ helps protect against plaque build up on the walls of arteries and helps maintain good bone mas density.
Lowered levels of estrogen are also associated with mood fluctuations, hot flashes, and _____.
Hormone therapies have been developed to combat the side effects of menopause. Hormone treatments include _____, which is normally used only with women who have had hysterectomies, or hormone replacement theory.
ERT estrogen replacement therapy
There is ongoing controversy about the risks associated with ERT and HRT. If administered late in menopause, HRT may increase the patient's risk for developing ______, but if started earlier, may actually reduce this risk.
_____ has been shown in some studies to increase the risk of breast cancer and blood clots.
The male climacteric is caused by decreasing amounts of _____, but it is more gradual, less obvious process compared to the female climacteric. Some men may never lose their reproductive capacity.
It is difficult to determine if changes in sexual activity or a male's sexual arousal is due to _______ or other factors.
There is a gradual loss of bone density associated with _____.
The loss of bone mass is due to decreased levels of calcium and _____ in the body.
Loss of bone density can lead to a bone disease called _____ in which bones are very brittle and may spontaneously fracture.