Chapter 4: Carnohydrates: Sugars Starches And Fibers Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Chapter 4: Carnohydrates: Sugars Starches And Fibers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4: Carnohydrates: Sugars Starches And Fibers Deck (35):
1

What are the three major parts of a kernel?

Endosperm, bran, and germ

2

Sugar unit

A sugar molecule that cannot be broken down to yield other sugars .

3

Monosaccharide

A carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit.

4

Disaccharide

A carbohydrate made up of two sugar units.

5

Polysaccharide

a carbohydrate made up of many sugar units linked together.

6

Carbohydrates

A group of compounds made of one or more sugar units that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

7

T or F?
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are classified as simple carbohydrates.

True.

8

What are the three most common monosaccharides in the diet?

Glucose, fructose, and galactose.

9

Glucose

A 6 carbon monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body.

10

T or F?
Glucose, often called blood sugar, is not an essential carbohydrate fuel for the human body.

False.
Glucose is THE MOST IMPORTANT carbohydrate fuel for the human body.

11

What are the three most common disaccharide in our diet?

Maltose, sucrose, and lactose

12

Complex carbohydrates

Polysaccharides which do not taste sweet like simple carbohydrate including glycogen in animals and starch in plants.

13

Glycogen

The storage form of carbohydrate in animals, made up of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure.

14

Starch

The storage form of carbohydrate in plants, made up of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branched chains.

15

Soluble fiber

Fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water and can be broken down by intestinal micro flora. It includes pectins, gums, and som hemicelluloses.

16

Insoluble fiber

Fiber that does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. It includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses, and lignin.

17

Oligosaccarides

A carbohydrate made up of 3 to 10 sugar units

18

Resistant starch

Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy people.

19

How does fiber prevent constipation?

The fiber speed up intestinal transit by increasing the amount of material and water in the intestine, stimulating peristalsis, causing the intestinal muscles to work harder and keep things moving.

20

Glycemic response

The rate, magnitude, and duration or the rise in blood glucose that occurs after food is consumed.

21

Glycemic index

A ranking of how a food affects blood glucose relative to the effect of an equivalent amount of carbohydrate from a reference food, such as white bread or pure glucose.

22

Glycemic load

Compares the effect of typical portions of food on blood glucose so it is a more practical way to assess the effect of a food on blood glucose levels.

23

Insulin

A hormone made in the pancreas that allows glucose to enter cells and stimulates the synthesis of protein, fat, and liver and muscle glycogen.

24

Glycosis

An anerobic metabolic pathway that splits glucose into two three-carbon pyruvate molecules; the energy released from one glucose molecule is used to make two molecules of ATP.

25

Diabetes

A disease characterized by elevated blood glucose due to either insufficient production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin.

26

type 1 diabetes

The form of diabetes caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency.

27

type 2 diabetes

It occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose in the normal range.

28

Which is more common? type 1 or type 2 diabetes?

Type 2

29

gestational diabetes

A condition characterized by high blood glucose levels that develop during pregnancy.

30

hypoglycemia

Abnormally low blood glucose levels.

31

fasting hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar that is not related to food intake; often caused by an insulin-secreting tumor.

32

reactive hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar that occurs an hour or so after the consumption of high-carbohydrate foods; results from an overproduction of insulin.

33

What is the AMDR for carbohydrates?

45-65% of your daily caloric intake

34

What five nutrients are added back into refined grains through enrichment? What four are not?

Enriched back:
Folic Acid
Thiamin
Niacin
Riboflavin
Iron
Not Enriched Back:
Fiber
Magnesium
Phytochemicals
Healthy fats

35

Describe the digestion process of carbohydrates.

man idk