Chapter 4 Cell Membrane Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Cell Membrane Deck (44):
1

Hydrophobic molecules: 4

O2, CO2, N2, benzene

2

Small uncharged polar molecules

H20, urea, glycerol

3

Large uncharged polar molecules 2

Glucose and sucrose

4

Glucose has gradient ___ cell

Into

5

Osmolarity higher in ____ than in ____

Plasma
ECF

6

Calcium has strong affinity for going ____ cell

Into

7

Cl has ____ concentration in cell

Phosphate is big anion in ____. Role:

Buffer by moving____ out of cell while moving ____ in

Acidosis:

Low

Cell. Buffering

Potassium, H

Potassium in blood increases

8

How fluid drawn in from interstitial space

Protein concentration 1 in plasma 0 in ECF (ISF), so draws fluid into ISF

9

Osmolarity higher in _____ than in ____

Plasma, ECF

10

Glucose has gradient into _____

Cell

11

Things to look up

Nernst potential
Osmotic gradient p= mRt

12

How particles move in facilitated diffusion

Electrochemical gradient

13

Active transport uses what to push something against its _____

ATP, electrochemical gradient

14

Secondary active transport usually uses

Something else, usually sodium gradient

15

Similarities and differences between transporters and channels

Same: selective for what goes through them

Transporters have conformational changes and channels don't

16

Know how to use Michaels mentin equation

T = Tmax X s / Tk + S

17

Method of transport in sodium potassium pump

Primary active transport

18

What controls number of aquaporins present and how

ADH signals them to cell membrane

19

Many ligands bind to receptors associated with membrane bound __ ___ to initiate transduction pathways. They react with other membrane bound proteins to activate __ ___ systems.

G proteins, second messenger

20

Cyclic amp and IP3 are what

Second messengers

21

What is first receptor and what is second messenger

Ligand receptor is first, G protein is second

22

How steroid receptors work

Lipophilic and able to go straight through plasma, bind to receptor in cytoplasm, binds to DNA in nucleus, attracts RNA polymerase, and up or down regulates a gene.

23

Adenylyl cyclase (cAMP) 8

ACTH
LH
FSH
ADH (V2 receptor)
PTH
Calcitonin
Glucagon
B-adrenergic agonists

24

Phospholipase C (IP3-ca) 8

GnRH
TRH
GHRH
CRH
Angiotensin II
ADH (V1)
Oxytocin
Alpha adrenergic agonists

25

Cytoplasmic/nuclear receptor 7

Cortisol
Estradiol
Progesterone
Testosterone
Aldosterone
Calcitriol
Thyroid hormones

26

Tyrosine kinase 3

Insulin
IGFs
GH

27

Guanylate Cyclase (cGMP) 2

ANP
Nitric oxide

28

Equation for hydrostatic pressure

P= mRT

29

Simple diffusion worked for ___ ___ molecules or ___ molecules.

2 examples

Small uncharged molecules or nonpolar molecules

O2 and co2

30

Facilitated diffusion drawn by ___ ___. Have a ____. Nothing is moving ___ gradient only ____

Electrochemical gradient. Channel. Up. Down

31

Active transport uses ___ to push something ___ it's ___ ___

ATP, against, electrochemical gradient

32

Secondary active transport normally drawn by ___ ___. Uses ___ of something else

Sodium gradient. Energy

33

Differences and similarities of channels and transporters

Both are selective for what goes through

Only transporters have conformational changes

34

What is Michaels menten equation

What is S, what is Tk

T= Tmax X S / Tk + S

S= particles trying to get through

Tk= half point

35

V= ___ X ___ / ____ + ___

Vmax X S /

Kt + S

36

What max rate of facilitated diffusion is

How it's different from simple

Simple diffusion is linear, no max

Max

37

Normal membrane potential

-50 to -70

38

What affects number of aquaporins

ADH

39

How hormones have different functions

Nuclear protein receptors

40

ANP and nitric oxide stimulated by

Guanylate cyclase or cGMP

41

Insulin, IGFs, and GH signaled by

Tyrosine kinase

42

Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, aldosterone, calcitriol, and thyroid hormones stimulated by

Cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors

43

GnRH, TRH, GHRH, CRH, Ang II, ADH (V1), oxytocin, alpha adrenergic agonists a stim by

IP3, Phospoholipase C Gsub2

44

ACTH, LH, FSH, ADH (V2), PTH, Calcitonin, glucagon, and beta adrenergic agonists stim by

Camp adenyl cyclase, gsub1