Chapter 4: Cell Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Cell Respiration Deck (46):
1

What's cell respiration?

cell respiration is when cells transfer the energy in glucose to ATP.

2

What's the formula for the complete aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose?

C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2) -> 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O + energy

3

What's is ATP made up of?

ATP is made up of adenosine and three (3) phosphate groups

4

What's adenosine?

adenosine is the nucleotide adenine plus ribose

5

How is ADP different from ATP?

ADP is more stable and has less energy because it has one less phosphate group.

6

What happens when ATP converts to ADP?

energy is RELEASED when ATP converts to ADP

7

What happens when ADP converts to ATP?

energy is ABSORBED when ADP converts to ATP by adding a phosphate.

8

how many membranes does a mitochondria have?

a mitochondria has TWO (2) membranes

9

Describe the mitochondria's membranes.

1. the outer membrane is smooth
2. the inner membrane called cristae is wrinkled

10

What does the inner membrane cristae do?

they DIVIDE the mitochondria into two (2) internal compartments
1. the outer compartment
2. and the matrix

11

What's the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

1. aerobic: requires oxygen
2. anaerobic: doesn't require oxygen

12

What're the steps of aerobic respiration?

steps of aerobic respiration:
1. glycolysis
2. Citric Acid or the Krebs cycle
3. electron transport chain (ETC)
4. chemiosmosis

13

What's another word for chemiosmosis?

oxidative phosphorylation.

14

What're the steps of anaerobic respiration?

steps of anaerobic respiration:
1. glycolysis
2. alcohol fermentation OR lactic acid fermentation.

15

Label the steps of aerobic respiration as anaerobic and aerobic.

steps of aerobic respiration:
1. glycolysis (ANAEROBIC)
2. Citric Acid or the Krebs cycle (AEROBIC)
3. electron transport chain (ETC) (AEROBIC)
4. chemiosmosis (AEROBIC)

16

What happens during glycolysis?

during glycolysis
1. one molecule of glucose is SPLIT into TWO (2) molecules of PYRUVATE.
2. two molecules of ATP are required to activate glycolysis.

17

Where does each step of aerobic respiration occur?

steps of aerobic respiration:
1. glycolysis is in the CYTOPLASM
2. Citric Acid or the Krebs cycle is in the MATRIX of the mitochondria
3. electron transport chain (ETC) and chemiosmosis are in the CRISTAE of the mitochondria

18

What are the reactants and products of glycolysis?

reactants and products of glycolysis:
One (1) glucose and Two (2) ATP -> Two (2) Pyruvate, Four (4) ATP, and Two (2) NADH.

19

What happens during the citric acid or Krebs cycle?

during the citric acid or Krebs cycle:
1. pyruvate combines with COENZYME A to form ACETYL COA.
2. acetyl coa converts to 1 ATP + 1 FADH(2) + 3 NADH + carbon dioxide.

20

Where does glycolysis occur?

glycolysis occurs in the CYTOPLASM

21

Where does the citric acid/ Krebs cycle occur?

the citric acid/ Krebs cycle occurs in the MATRIX of the mitochondria.

22

Where does chemiosmosis/ oxidative phosphorylation occur?

chemiosmosis/ oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the CRISTAE of mitochondria.

23

What are NADH and FADH2?

NADH and FADH2 are COENZYMES.

24

What do COENZYMES do?

coenzymes carry H+ protons from the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain.

25

Each NADH makes how many ATP?

Each NADH makes THREE (3) ATP

26

Each FADH makes how many ATP?

Each FADH makes TWO (2) ATP.

27

What does oxidize mean?

it means to LOSE electrons
- OILRIG

28

What does reduce mean?

it means to GAIN electrons
- OILRIG

29

What happens at the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN?

at the electron transport chain,
1. oxygen pulls electrons through the ETC
2. The ETC uses their energy to pump protons from the INNER MATRIX to the OUTER COMPARTMENT AGAINST the gradient.

30

What's the purpose of the ETC?

to use the energy from electrons to make a proton gradient.

31

What happens during CHEMIOSMOSIS or OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION?

during chemiosmosis or oxidative phosphorylation
1. the protons pumped out flow back into the inner matrix through ATP SYNTHASE channels.
2. ATP synthase uses the energy to combine ADP and P to make ATP energy.

32

What produces most of the ATP in aerobic cellular respiration?

CHEMIOSMOSIS and OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION produce MOST of the ATP in aerobic cellular respiration.

33

What does oxygen do in chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation?

oxygen
1. pulls electrons through the ETC
2. accepts electrons and protons from the ETC, and combines with them to form water.

34

What is the electron transport chain made up of?

the electron transport chain is made up of CARRIER MOLECULES embedded in the cristae.

35

What's an example of a carrier molecule in the electron transport chain?

cytochromes.

36

How many electron transport chains does one (1) mitochondria have?

THOUSANDS.

37

During cell respiration, most energy flows in what order?

During cell respiration, most energy flows in this sequence:
glucose -> NAD and FAD -> electron transport chain (chemiosmosis) -> ATP.

38

What's the total number of ATP that's made by one glucose molecule during cellular respiration?

36 ATP are made made by one glucose molecule during cellular respiration.

39

Where did anaerobic respiration originate from?

it originated BILLIONS of years ago when there was NO OXYGEN in the earth's atmosphere.

40

What're the steps of anaerobic alcohol fermentation?

alcohol fermentation:
1. glycolysis: One (1) glucose molecule breaks down into two (2) pyruvate molecules.
2. alcohol fermentation: cells convert pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide

41

What're the products of alcohol fermentation?

1. ethyl alcohol
2. carbon dioxide.

42

What're the steps of anaerobic lactic acid fermentation?

lactic acid fermentation:
1. glycolysis: One (1) glucose molecule breaks down into two (2) pyruvate molecules.
2. lactic acid fermentation: cels convert pyruvate into lactic acid

43

What're the products of lactic acid fermentation?

1. lactic acid

44

When does lactic acid fermentation occur?

lactic acid fermentation occurs
1. when you're exercising a lot and the body can't keep up with the skeletal muscles' demands for oxygen.
2. pyruvate converts to lactic acid and builds up in the muscles, causing fatigue and burning.
3. when the blood starts flowing again and there's more oxygen, the lactic acid is removed from the muscles and converted back to pyruvate.

45

What's the First Law of Thermodynamics?

The First Law of Thermodynamics is that energy can not be CREATED nor DESTROYED.

46

What are the reactants and products of the citric acid or Krebs cycle?

1. reactants: acetyl coa
2. products:
- 1 ATP
- 1 FADH(2)
- 3 NADH
- carbon dioxide.