Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4- Ecology And Ecosystems- Communities And Eco-systems Deck (42):
1

Define habitat

Environment in which species lives in

2

Define population

Group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time

3

Define community

Group of populations living and interacting in the same area

4

Define ecosystem

Community and its abiotic environment

5

Define ecology

Study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment

6

Define an autotroph

Organism that synthesis it's organic molecules from simple inorganic substances (e.g CO2 and nitrates)

7

What are autotrophs?

Producers

8

Define a heterotroph

Obtains organic molecules from other organisms

9

What are heterotrophs?

They are consumers

10

Define a consumer

Organism which ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed

11

Define detritivore

Organisms that ingests non-living organic matter

12

Define saprotroph

Organisms that lives in or eats non living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion

13

What do food chains show?

Food chains show linear feeding relationships between species

14

What do you arrows represent in food chains?

Arrows represent transfer of energy as one organism is eaten by another

15

What is the first organism in a food chain sequence and what is it followed by?

The first organism in the sequence is the producer followed by consumer

16

Draw three food chains including land pond and ocean

Do it Martha

17

What do food web show?

Food web show how food chains are linked together into more complex fitting relationships within a community

18

In food webs what can hold more than one trophic level

more than one producer and consumer occupy Multiple trophic positions

19

Define trophic level

Trophic level refers to the position it occupies in a food chain

20

What is trophic level one

Producer

21

What is trophic level two

Primary consumer

22

What is trophic level three

Secondary consumer

23

What is trophic level four

Tertiary consumer

24

Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms

Fucking do it

25

Why is light useful for almost all communities

All green plants some bacteria= photo trophic they use light as a source of energy for synthesising organic molecules

26

What is light at the initial source for?

Almost all communities

27

How does energy enter most communities

Energy enters most communities as light its absorbed by autotrophs e.g. plants And converted into chemical and converted into energy by photosynthesis

28

After energy enters most communities as light how does energy then get past the primary consumer?

Energy then gets passed to the primary consumer herbivore when They eat the plant and then get past the successive consumers carnivores as they eaten in turn

29

How much energy is passed from one trophic level to another and where does the rest go?

Only about 10% of energy is passed from one trophic level to another the rest is lost

30

How much percentage of energy is lost from trophic level to trophic level

90%

31

What can energy be lost as when moving from trophic level to trophic level

It can be used as heat, used up during cell respiration, be excreted in faeces or a remain unconsumed as it uneaten part of the food

32

Explain the reason for the shade of the pyramids of energy

The pyramid is a graphical representation of the amount of energy in each trophic level in a food chain

33

What unit are the pyramids shown in

They are expressed in units of energy per area per time

34

Why will a pyramid never been inverted (2nd law of thermodynamics)(

Pyramids will never be inverted as energy is stored in one is always lost when transferred to the next source--> application of the second law of thermodynamics

35

What should each level of the pyramid be?

1/10 of the level before it

36

Can energy be recycled

No

37

What is an eco system powered by?

A continuous influx of new energy from an external source (eg the sun)

38

Nutrients are required by what? And what?

An organism- which recycles an ecosystem as food (living or dead)

39

What do autotrophic activities of producers produce?

Organic material from inorganic sources, which are then fed on by consumers

40

What happens when heterotrophic organisms die?

Inorganic nutrients returned to soil and are used by plans ----> thus energy flows through an ecosystem, while nutrients cycle with them

41

What do decomposes do?

Recycle nutrients--> Free inorganic materials from the dead bodies and waste products of organisms, ensuring a continual supply of raw materials from the producers

42

Define species

Group of organisms which can interbreed, and produce fertile offspring

Decks in Biology Class (64):