Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics Deck (15):
The study of energy in the human body.
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which includes starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar.
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fats, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel.
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted in glucose for use by the muscle cells.
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some of the vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated.
The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds.
The formation of glucose from noncarbohyrdate sources, such as amino acids.
Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed.
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFA's into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP.