Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics Deck (27):
The study of energy in the human body.
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar.
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. They help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body.
Two types of fats found in foods.
Saturated and unsaturated.
The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body.
Amino acids lined by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds.
The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids.
Before food can become a usable form of energy it has to be converted into smaller units called ____________.
Energy stored in substrate molecules are chemically released in cells and stored in a form of a high-energy compound called ______ .
Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A high-energy compound occuring in all cells from which ATP is formed
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
The process of creating a new ATP molecule from a phosphcreatine molecule.
The simplest and fastest of the energy systems and occurs without the presence of oxygen (Anaerobic)
Energy system that provides energy for primarily high-intensity, short-duration bouts of exercise or activity.
ATP PC stores could supply energy to all of the working muscles in short duration, high intensity activity for only __ to __ seconds before complete oxygen.
10 to 15 seconds.
Anearobic means of producing ATP the the chemical breakdown of glucose
Energy system that can produce significantly greater energy than ATP-PC, but is limited to approx. 30-50 seconds of duration. Typical in an 8-12 rep range used in fitness workouts.
Aerobic process (using oxygen) of generating ATP .
Breakdown of glucose to energy using sufficient Oxygen producing ATP and CO2 + H2O
Breakdown of glucose to be used as energy with insufficient Oxygen producing Lactic Acid
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids to convert them into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP