Chapter 4 - Functioning of the Nervous System (some in lecture was from Ch. 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Functioning of the Nervous System (some in lecture was from Ch. 3) Deck (27):
1

Staining techniques

Golgi Stain
  allowed for visualization of individual neurons
 
Nisel Stain
  allows us to see cell bodies(soma) of neurons


electron microspcopy
  unconver the fine structure of neurons

2

4 types of glial cells

astrocytes
surround neurons and blood vessels
some touch upon neurons conveying chemicals to the cps

Microglia
implicated in the inflammatory response
respond to injury or disease


oligodrendroglia
create and maintain myelin in the cns


Schawn cells
create and maintain myelin the in pns

3

The ionic basis of the resting potential

 At rest  difference of -70mv between inside and outside of cell
  net negative inside (k+)
  net positive outside (Na+ and Cl-)
  -70 mv = resting potential
  potential is maintained by a few different forces
 
  Membranes are selectively permeable
  Hydrophobic lipid bilayer
  volatage activated ion channels: protein tubes spanning the membranes
   gated ion channels
   non gated ion channels
  Enable changes in the polarization of a cell

4

PSPs vs. Action Potentials

5

Refractory periods

6

Saltatory conduction

Saltatory conduction is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials without needing to increase the diameter of an axon.

7

Sodium-Potassium pump

Removes 3 Na from the cell while taking in 2 K
THIS CONSUMES ENERGY
CL pumps also exist.

8

 chemical synapse

 cytoplasm not conitnous
vesicles in presynaptic nueron-fuse with the cell membrane at active zones
MECHANISM (.3-.5 miliseconds)
proceeds in one direction
chemical synapses are slow
important for graded potentials

9

Active zones/

the places at which the vesicles fuse and release neurotransmitters
influx of Calcium the fusion of the vesicle to the presynaptic membrane
neurtransmitter binds with receptors on the post synaptic cleft
THE NUERO TRANSMITTERS MOVE ACROSS THE CLEFT VIA DIFFUSION

10

vesicles/

11

exocytosis

12

3 methods of endocytosis (recycling) of synaptic vesicles

13

Repackaging of vesicles

reconstructed by citerna

14

Receptor sites (l)

LIGAND GATED RECEPTOR (ION CHANNELS)
SECOND MESSENGER SYSTEM(metabatropic)

15

ligand-gated 

16

 second messenger

17

Major classes of neurotransmitters 

AMINO ACID NeuroTransmitters

MONOAMINES

Indolamines

Soluble Gases

Endacannabinoids

NEUROPEPTIDES

18

3 methods of removal of neurotransmitters from the synapse

ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION

19

astrocytes

surround neurons and blood vessels
some touch upon neurons conveying chemicals to the cps

20

Microglia

implicated in the inflammatory response
respond to injury or disease

21

oligodrendroglia

create and maintain myelin in the cns

22

Schawn cells

create and maintain myelin the in pns

23

electircal synapse

ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES ARE FAST
CONNECT LARGE GROUPS OF NEURONS
ALLOW COORDING OF CELL ASSEMBLIES WHEN CURRENT FLOWS ACROSS A   GROUP OF CELLS SIMULTANEOUSLY

ions flow dircetly from pre-post synaptic neurons
synaptic cleft is smaller 

there is no neurotransmitter
  comprissed of 6 proteins called connexins that rotate open and closed
  Transmission through ion current flow
  virtual absence of transmission delay
  usually BIDIRECTIONAL (IT GOES BOTH WAYS HA)

24

Endocytosis

the process by which the vesicle is taken back into the neuron is called endocytosis

25

classical exocytosis

the cell membrane absorbs the vesicle
concentrate intra membranous particles into small packages
important for slower release rates
operates in the presence of low Ca levels (ca not a player)
Clatharin dependent
 

26

kiss and run exocytosis

 the vesicle does not absorb
touches up against it
releases it and runs

27

BULK EXOCYTOSIS

 excessive amounts of vesicles enter the active zones and release neurotransmitter