Chapter 4 - Motivation and Affect Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Motivation and Affect Deck (59):

Define motivation

the processes that cause people to behave a certain way. Occurs when a need is aroused and consumer wishes to satisfy it


What is the desired end state for the consumer to satisfy an need via motivation?

A Goal


What is the magnititute of tension that determines the urgency of a need to reduce that tension for motivation called?



What is Drive Theory?

It is focused on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal, and we are motivated to reduce tension caused by this physiological arousal (such as rumbling stomach when hungry)


With drive theory, what it the state of being balance with no tension?



What difficulties does drive theory run into?

That some people often try to do things that increase drive state rather than decrease it, such as people who delay gratification (skipping snack to enjoy fancy dinner more)


What is expectancy theory?

It takes a more cognitive approach and suggests that behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes (positive incentives) rather than biological pushed from within


What are biogenic needs?

These are things to maintain life such as food, water, shelter, and air


What are psychogenic needs?

These are acquired in process of becoming a member of a culture, Such as need for status, power, affiliation, and so on


What are utilitarian or hedonic needs?

Utilitarian are tangible things such as gas mileage, and hedonic are internal intangible things such as the luxury vibe of a luis vutton


What does a goal having a valence mean?

It can be positive or negative. So a negative one would be like deodorant, you have a goal to avoid smelling bad and be rejected in society


What are three types of motivational conflict?



What is approach-approach conflict?

A person choosing between two desirable alternatives. So taco or burger.


How can approach-approach reduce cognitive dissonance?

Well having a choice reduced the tension of having a need for consistency in peoples lives


What are 6 biogenic types of needs defined by Murray

1. Food
2. water
3. air
4. sleep
5. Sex
6. Shelter

and more...


What are 6 psychogenic types of needs defined by Murray

1. Autonomy
2. Affiliation
3. Analysis
4. Dependence
5. Self-Depreciation
6. Exhibition

and more...


What are Maslows Hierarchy of Needs from low level to thigh?

1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Belngingness
4. Ego Needs
5. Self-Actualization


Define Consumer Involvement

Persons perceived releanve of the object (brand, product etc) based on inherent needs, values, and interests.

Can be seen as motivation to process information


What is the lowest level of consumer involvement?

Inertia, which is where they don't care about the marketing or considering alternative products or brands. They just want their corn, jam etc


What is the holy grail of web designers, and is a very large set of consumer involvement?

The flow state, which is where the consumer loses all track of time as he or she becomes engrossed in the brands site/marketing etc


What are 6 things that characterize flow state?

1. Sense of playfulness
2. Feeling of being in control
3. Concentration and highly focused attention
4. Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake
5. Distorted sense of time
6. Match between the challenge at hand and ones skills


What type of products have high level of cognitive involvement? What type of media is best suited?

Cars, new products, advertised through print, info based ads


What type of products have low level of cognitive involvement? What type of media is best suited?

Ground beef, household cleaners, advertised through 10 sec. IDs, POS reminders


What type of products have high level of Affective involvement? What type of media is best suited?

Jewellery, motorcycles, advertised through TV, image based ads


What type of products have low level of Affective involvement? What type of media is best suited?

Candy, liquor, etc advertised through POS attention-grabbing


What is Mass Customization?

Customization and personalization of products and services for individual customers at a mass production price


The quest to heighten message involvement is fuelling the rapid growth of what?

Interactive Mobile Marketing


What are 5 strategies a marketer can use to enhance consumers motivation to process relevant information fairly easily?

1. Appeal to consumers hedonic needs (sensory appeal
2. Use novel stimuli (unusual imagery or unexpectedness)
3. Use prominent stimuli such as (loud colours for attention)
4. Include celebrity endorsers to generate higher interest
5. Build a bind with consumers by maintaining ongoing relationship


What is affect?

Experience of emotionally-laden states, such as evaluations, moods, or full-blown emotions


What are evaluation affects?

Valenced reactions to events and objects not accompanied with arousal. Such as if movie was good or bad


What are moods affects?

temporary positive or negative affetive staes with moderate levels of arousal


What are emotion affects?

These are intense with high level of arousal


What is negative state relief?

This is when you make people help others to resolve their own negative mood, such as adopting a kid in africa to resolve guilt while watching sad commercial


What is mood congruency effects?

Our judgements are often consisted with our mood states, so placing ads after a funny show or something that would generate a good mood to associate with product


What is sentiment anlasyses

This is scouring SM to find positive or negative opinions and thouights


What is a word-phrase dictionary?

This is used to get words in the sentiment analyses


What are 4 discrete emotions?

1. Happiness
2. Envy
3. Guilt
4. Embarrassment


What is the traditional and new approach to consumer behaviour?

traditional is to focus on abilities of products to satisfy rational needs (utilitarian motives). But now we look at hedonic motives (such as need for exploring or fun) to play a role in purchase decisions


Is linking behaviour to instinct credible?

Not really, drive theory is not great at eWhxplaining delayed gratification


What are 4 types of needs?

1. Biogenic
2. Psychogenic
3. Utilitarian
4. Hedonic


In which motivational conflict does guilt of desire occur?



What are 4 specific needs for buying behaviour?

1. Need for achievement (BMW status)
2. Need for affiliation (Socializing Alcohol)
3. Need for power (control enviro like in muscle car)
4. Need for uniqueness (Apple)


What is the new need that prof mentioned, Need for cognition?

People who like to draw their own conclusions and think about things.


What are 3 criticisms of Maslow's Hierarchy?

1. Proscriptive
higher level needs only met when lower needs met

2. Cultural Bias
Also somewhat time bias, in that we are a lot more societal/communal then we were

3. Measurement
Lack of adequate tools to test empirically


What is an example of goal setting that is SMART?

Nike and the running room


How can goals be unconsciously activated?

Well Apple somehow makes people want to be unique and different


Do people decrease effort as they get closer to goal?

yes, like personal trainers saying they'll push you past that


When does "flow" occur?

When the challenge of the environment meets the skills of the user


What kind of involvement is:


TV is low involvement

Print is high involvement


What are 5 involvement profile components?

1. Personal interest in product category

2. Risk importance

3. Probability of bad purchase

4. Pleasure value of product category

5. Sign Value of product category (self-concept relevance)


5 Strategies to increase involvement

1. Appeal to hedonistic needs

2. use novel stimuli in commercials

3. Use prominent stimuli in commercials

4. Include celebrity endorsers in commercials

5. Build consumer bonds via ongoing consumer relationships


In the ted video, how does emotion affect product design?

We look at products and buy them not because they have the greatest utility, but instead there is something intrinsically appealing.


Define SMART goal



Carol has just received an invitation to her boss's son's wedding. She does not really have a close relationship with her boss and has never met his son, which makes purchasing the wedding gift somewhat tricky. This is an example of a_____________ involvement.

purchase situation


What are two types of envy?

1. Benign envy
So the other one deserves its status, and willing to pay more for say an iPhone

2. Malicious envy
So other one doesn't deserve status, and not willing to pay for iPhone and instead go with Samsung


What theory is based on the premise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and that a state of tension exists when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another.

Cognitive Dissonance


Jennifer has been afraid to go to the dentist since she was a child. Now that her tooth is hurting her and she needs a root canal, she is experiencing what type of motivational conflict?



On the NikeId website, consumers can customize their own sneakers by choosing the style and colour of their shoes. This type of customization is one way to enhance__________.

product involvement


In an effort to enhance __________, Procter & Gamble is going so far as to create a new medium by printing trivia questions and answers on its Pringles' snack chips using ink made of blue or red food colouring.

message-response involvement

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