Chapter 4 - Musculoskeletal System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Musculoskeletal System Vocabulary Deck (79):
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Acetylcholine

A chemical neurotransmitter that serves as the mediator in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

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Acetylcholinesterase

The enzyme that causes muscle relaxation by helping to break down acetylcholine

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Achilles tendon

The strong tendon that joins the muscles in the posterior leg to the calcaneus

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Actin

The component that makes up most of the thin protein filaments of the myofibrils

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Action potential

Changes and electrical potential that occur when a cell or tissue has been activated by a stimulus

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Adductor brevis

the short muscle that adducts the thigh

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adductor longus

The long muscle that adducts the hip

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Agonist

The primary mover; a muscle that contracts to provide most of the desired effect

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anal triangle

The area within the pelvis that contains the anus

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Antagonist

Muscles working in opposition to each other

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Aponeuroses

Broad sheets of fibers that may attach to bone or to the covering of other muscles

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Bell palsy

A condition caused by damage, either through trauma or infection, to the facial nerve, resulting in an inability to move the facial muscles on the affected side

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Biceps femoris

Located in the posterior compartment of the leg; flexes and Laterally rotates the knee and extends the hip

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Calmodulin

An intracellular proteins which calcium binds, resulting in muscle contraction

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Cardiac muscle

Muscle that is found only in the heart, providing the contractions needed to propel of the blood of the circulatory system

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Compartment syndrome

Accumulation of blood or fluid in a facial compartment, typically following trauma, resulting in compression a blood vessels and tissue damage secondary to ischemia and, if not recognize and promptly treated, death of muscle and loss of the limb

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Compartments

Anatomic spaces in the body that are enclosed by Fascia

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Creatine phosphate

An organic compound in muscle tissue that can store and provide energy for muscle contraction

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Depolarization

The rapid movement of electrolytes across a cell membrane that changes the cells overall charge. This rapid shifting of electrolytes and cellular charges is the main catalyst for muscle contractions in Neural transmissions

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Diaphragm

A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from lungs.

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Endomysium

The delicate connective tissue surrounding individual muscular fibers

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Epimysium

A layer of connective tissue that closely surround skeletal muscles

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Extensor muscles

Groups of muscles that cause extension

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Extracellular fluid

Fluid outside of the cells, in which most of the body supply of sodium is contained; accounts for 15% of body weight

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Extraocular movements

Movement of the eyes in various directions

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Fascia

A layer of fibrous connective tissue outside the epimysium the separate individual muscles and individual muscle groups

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Flexor muscles

Groups of muscles that cause flexion when contracted

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Gap junction

Conduction areas between cells (in visceral smooth muscles) the interconnect individual muscle cells

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Hemoglobin

An iron containing pigment within red blood cells that has the ability to bind to oxygen

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Insertion

Immovable part of the body in which a skeletal muscle is fast at a movable joint

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Intercalated disks

Branching fibers in cardiac muscle that allow action potentials to pass from cell to cell

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Intrinsic automaticity

The ability of a muscle to generate its own electrical activity

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Lactic acid

A metabolic end product of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen

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Motor end plate

The flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle

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Motor unit

A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it controls

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Multiunit smooth muscle

One of the two types of smooth muscle, it is formed into sheets of muscle (as in the walls of blood vessels), small bundle of muscles (as in the iris of the eye), or single cells (as in the capsule of the spleen).

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Muscle

Fibers that contract causing movement; three types of muscle the present in the body: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle

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Muscle fasciculus

A bundle of skeletal muscle cells bound together by connective tissue and forming one of the constituent elements of muscle

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Muscle impulse

One that passes in many directions over a muscle fiber membrane after stimulation by acetylcholine

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Musculoskeletal system

The bones and voluntary muscles of the body

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Myofibrils

Threadlike structures that extend from one end of the muscle fiber to the other

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Myoglobin

An iron containing red pigment similar to hemoglobin, that is found in muscle fibers

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Myosin

The component that makes up most of the thick protein filaments of the myofibrils

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Nerve impulse

Electrochemical changes transmitted by neurons to other neurons and to cells outside the nervous system

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Neuromuscular junction

The junction between a motor neuron and a muscle fibers; one type of a synapse

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Neurotransmitters

Chemical substances that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse

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Origin

A relatively immovable part of the body where a skeletal muscle is fastened at a movable joint

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Oxygen debt

The amount of oxygen that liver cells need to convert lactic acid into glucose, as well as the amount needed by muscle cells to restore adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate levels

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Pectineus muscles

Deep muscles of the medial compartment that adduct, flex, and internally rotate the thigh

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Pectoralis major

The largest muscle of the chest wall; it adducts and internally rotates the shoulder

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Perimysium

The connective tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers

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Perineum

The area below the coccygeus and levator ani muscles, which forms the floor of the pelvis

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Polarized

When a cell is at rest, ions are actively transported into and out of the cell to create an electochemical gradient across the cell membrane

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Prime mover

The muscle in a group of muscles that has a major role in movement

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Quadriceps femoris

Muscle contained in the anterior compartment of the thigh that extends the knee went contracted

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Rectus abdominis

The linear muscle of the midline of the abdomen

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Repolarization

The process by which ions are moved across the cell wall to return to a polarized state

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Rotator cuff

A special group of four muscles that form a cap over the proximal humorous and ties the humorous to the scapula; it controls rotation of the shoulder joint

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Sarcolemma

The thin transparent sheath surrounding a striated muscle fiber

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Sarcomeres

The repeating patterns of striation units that appear along each skeletal muscle fiber

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

A system of membranes that transport materials in muscle cells

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Sartorius muscle

The longest muscle in the human body it is located in the anterior compartment of the thigh and flexes both the hip and knee when it contracts

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Scalene muscles

Muscles of respiration that elevate the first two ribs during inspiration

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Skeletal muscle

Striated muscles that are under direct volitional control of the brain; also called voluntary muscles

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Sliding filament model

A method of action of muscle contraction involving how sarcomeres shorten, with thick and thin filaments the sliding past each other toward the center of the sarcomeres from both ends

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Smooth muscle

Non-striated muscle that carries out much of the automatic work of the body, such as moving food through the digestive tract and dilating and constricting the pupils of the Eye; also called involuntary muscle

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Striations

Areas of alternating, colored bands of skeletal muscle fibers

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Synapse

A functional connection where neurons communicate with other cells

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Synaptic cleft

The space between neurons

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Synergists

Muscles that work together to accomplish a particular movement

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Tendons

Tough, ropelike cords of fibrous tissue that attach muscles to bones

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Thompson test

A test used to evaluate the integrity of the Achilles tendon for possible ruptured

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Transverse tubules

T tubules; membrane is channels extending inward and passing through muscle fibers

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Tropomyosin

An actin binding proteins that regulate muscle contraction and other Actin related mechanical function of the body

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Troponin

A regulatory protein in the actin filament of skeletal and cardiac muscle that attaches to tropomyosin

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Urogenital triangle

The region within the pelvis that contains the structures of the urogenital system

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Visceral smooth muscle

Sheets of muscle found in the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tract

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Whiplash

A layman's term for traumatic soft tissue injury to the structures of the neck, associated with sudden flexion or extension

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Yergason test

Supination of the forearm against resistance to evaluate whether a patient has bicipital tendinitis