Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity recognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity recognition Deck (33):
1

the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

behavior genetics

2

every non-genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things thing around us.

environment

3

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

chromosomes

4

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA

5

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

deoxyribonucleic acid

6

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

genes

7

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.

genome

8

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

identical twins

9

single fertilized egg.

monozygotic egg

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twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs, they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.

fraternal twins

11

separate fertilized eggs.

dizygotic eggs

12

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.

temperament

13

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

molecular genetics

14

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of population and environments studied.

heritability

15

the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).

interaction

16

the study of influences of gene expression that occur without a DNA change.

epigenetics

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the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.

evolutionary psychology

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the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

natural selection

19

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.

gender

20

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

culture

21

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior.

norm

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giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining ones' identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.

individualism

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giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.

collectivism

24

physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.

aggression

25

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.

X chromosome

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the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

Y chromosome

27

the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

Testosterone

28

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

role

29

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

Gender role

30

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

Social learning theory

31

our sense of being male or female.

Gender identity

32

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.

Gender typing

33

the umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex.

transgender