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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Outline-nutrition Deck (73)
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Define digestion

Preparation of good for absorption

1

Define metabolism

Changes which a good undergoes after absorption

2

Define Absorption

Taking up of fluids or other substances by the skin, mucks, mucus surface, and absorption vessels.

3

Define assimilation

Transformation of good into living tissue

4

What two categories can feeds be divided into

Roughages and concentrates

5

Define feed

Substances eaten and digested that provides essential nutrients

6

Define roughages

Feed that is high in fiber and low in digestibility

Hay or grass-type products

7

Define concentrates

Low in fiber and high in digestibility

8

Define ration

The feed allowed an animal in a 24-hour period

9

Define a balanced ration

A ration that provides the nutrients in the correct amount and ratio to properly nourish an animal for a 24-hour period

10

Define nutrient

A group of general structures that aid in the support of life.

11

What are the six nutrients

Water
Protein
Carbohydrates
Minerals
Vitamins
Fats

12

What are the five functions of water

Dissolve and carry nutrients
Control body temperature
Shape of cells
Excretion of waste
Digestive process

13

What are the two symptoms of water deficiency

Decrease feed intake
Decease growth

14

What are the four functions of proteins

Body building
Hormones
Enzymes
Hair and skin pigmentation

15

What kind of amino acids do non-ruminants need

-Need specific amino acids
-Need a high quality protein containing a large variety if amino acids

16

What kind of amino acids do ruminants need

They do not need a wide variety of protein because they can synthesize needed amino acids through the actions of microorganisms in the rumen.

17

What are some good protein sources

Cottonseed meal
Soybean meal
Legume Hays
- Alfalfa Hay

18

What are three situations where protein in needed

Young
Pregnant
Lactating

19

What are the functions of carbohydrates

-To provide energy
-Energy is used for maintenance, growth, fattening, reproduction, and lactation

20

What are the three classifications for carbohydrates

Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

21

What are monosaccharides and give examples

The simplest form of carbohydrates

Glucose and fructose

22

What are disaccharides and give some examples

Two attached sugars

Sucrose- cane sugar
Lactose- milk sugar
Maltose- malt sugar

23

What are polysaccharides and some examples

Starch and cellulose

24

What is a starch

- Many glucose units, energy
- principle form of stored energy in grain
- digest starch to glucose
- very digestible, feeding value is relatively high

25

What is cellulose

- Bulk of plant cell walls which forms the woody fibrous parts, form glucose
- examples are roughages
- less digestible, still forms glucose
- yields same energy as starch, less efficient since some energy must be used in the process of digestion to break down into glucose.

26

What are three symptoms of deficiency in carbohydrates

-loss of weight
-delayed puberty and maturity
-overall poor body condition

27

How much more energy to fats have compared to carbohydrates on an equal weight basis

2.25

28

Why are fats used in livestock feeds

-Raises energy level in feed
-Improves flavor, texture and playability

29

What are some examples of fats

Vegetable oil and rendered animal fats