Chapter 4: Perceiving and Recognizing Objects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Perceiving and Recognizing Objects Deck (40):
1

Extrastriate Cortex

The region of cortex bordering the primary visual cortex and containing multiple areas involved in visual processing

2

Lession

A region of damaged brain, to destroy brain region.

3

Agnosia

A failure to recognize objects in spite of the ability to see them. Agnosia is typically due to brain damage.

4

Inferotemporal (IT) cortex

Part of cortex in lower portion of the temporal lobe, important in object recognition

5

Homologous regions

Brain regions that appear to have the same function in different species.

6

feed-forward process

a process that carries out a computation one neural step after another, without need for feed-back from a later stage to an earlier stage.

7

middle vision

a loosley defined stage of visual processing that comes after basic features have been extracted from the image and before object recognition and scene understanding.

8

Illusory contour

A contour that is perceived even though nothing changes from one side of it to the other in an image.

9

Structuralism

a school of thought believing that complex objects or perceptions could be understood by analysis of the components.

10

Gestalt

Perceptual whole could be greater than apparent sum of parts

11

Gestalt grouping rules

A set of rules describing which elements in an image will appear to group together. The original list was assembles by members of the Gestalt school of thought.

12

Good Continuation

A Gestalt grouping rule stating that two elements will tend to group together if they seem to lie on the same contour.

13

texture segmentation

carving an image into regions of common texture properties

14

similarity

Gestalt rule: tendency of two feature to group together will increase as similarity between them increases

15

proximity

tendency to group together increases with shortened distance

16

Parallelsim

a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that parallel contours are likely to belong t the same figure.

17

symmetry

a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that symmetrical regions are more likely to be seen as figure.

18

Ambiguous figure

a visual stimulus that gives rise to two or more interpretations of its identity or structure.

19

Necker cube

an outline that is perceptually bi-stable. Unlike the situation with most stimuli, two interpretations continually battle for perceptual dominance.

20

accidental viewpoint

A viewing position that produces some regularity in the visual image that is not present in the world

21

figure-ground assignment

The process of determining that some regions of an image belong to a foreground object (figure) and other regions are part of the background (ground).

22

Surroundedness

A rule for figure-ground assignment stating that if one region is entirely surrounded by another, it is likely that the surrounded region is the figure.

23

reliability

The degree to which two line segments appear to be part of the same contour.

24

heuristic

a mental shortcut

25

nonaccidental figure

A feature of an object that is not dependent on the exact (or accidental) viewing position of the observer.

26

global superiority effect

The finding in various experiments that the properties of the whole objects take precedence over the properties of the parts of the object.

27

Bayesian Approach

A way of formalizing the idea that our perception is a combination of the current stimulus and our knowledge about the conditions of the world - what is and is not likely to occur. The Bayesian approach is states mathematically as Bayes' Theorem - P(A|O) = P(A) X P(O|A)/P(O) - which enables us to calculate the probability (P) that the world is in a particular state (A) given a particular observation (O).

28

parahippocampal place area (PPA)

A regions of extrastriate visual cortex in humans that is specifically reliably activated more by images of places than by other stimuli.

29

fusiform face area (FFA)

A regions of extrastriate visual cortex in humans that is specifically and reliably activated by human faces.

30

middle temporal area (MT)

an area of the brain thought to be important in the perception of motion.

31

Naive template theory

The proposal that the visual system recognizes objects by matching the neural representation of the image with a stored representation of the same "shape" in the brain.

32

extrastriate body area (EBA)

A regions of extrastriate visual cortex in humans that is specifically and reliably activated by images of the body other than the face.

33

Structural description

A description of an object in terms of the nature of its constituent parts and the relationships between those parts.

34

geon

In Beiderman's recognition-by-components model, any of the "geometric ions" out of which perceptual objects are built.

35

recognition-by-components model

Biederman's model of object recognition by the identities and relationships of their component parts.

36

viewpoint invariance

1. A property of an object that does not change when observer viewpoint changes. 2. A class of theories of object recognition that proposes representations of objects that do not change when viewpoint changes.

37

entry-level category

For an object, label that comes to mind most quickly when we identify it. At the subordinate level, the object might be more specifically named or more generally named.

38

Porsopagnosia

An inability to recognize faces.

39

Double dissociation

The phenomenon in which on of two functions, such as hearing and sight, can be damaged without harm to the other and vice versa.

40

Congenital prosopagnosia

A form of "face blindness" apparently present from birth, as opposed to "acquired prosopagnosia", which would typically be the result of an injury to the nervous system.