Chapter 4. Prefixes - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4. Prefixes - Medical Terms Deck (88):
1

abductor

muscle that leads a limb away from the body

2

adductor

muscle that leads a limb toward the body

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adrenal glands

endocrine glands above the kidney

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anabolism

process of building up proteins in cells

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analysis

separation of a substance into various parts

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anoxia

without oxygen

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ante cibum

before meals

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anteflexion

bending forward

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antepartum

before birth

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antibiotic

against life (germ life), things given to combat bacteria

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antibody

proteins made by white blood cells to destroy antigens

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antigen

substance (protein) that stimulates the production of antibodies

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antisepsis

destruction of microorganisms to prevent infection

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antitoxin

substance produced against a toxin (poison); an antibody

15

apnea

without breathing

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autoimmune disease

antibodies that are produces against an individual's own normal cells

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benign

non-cancerous

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bifurcation

branching or forking into two parts

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bilateral

pertaining to both or two sides

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bradycardia

slow heartbeat, usually less than 60 beats per minute

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congenital anomaly

abnormality present at birth; birth defect

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connective tissue

tissue that supports and binds other tissues and parts, examples are bones, cartilage, muscle, or fibrous tissue

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contraindication

a factor that prohibits the administration of a drug or procedure in the care of a patient

24

contralateral

affecting the opposite side of a part of the body

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dehydration

excessive loss of water

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dialysis

separation of nitrogenous wastes from the blood when the kidneys no longer function

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diameter

distance between opposite parts on the circumference of a structure

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diarrhea

the frequent passage of watery, loose stools

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dysplaisa

condition of abnormal formation

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ectopic pregnancy

a pregnancy that is outside the uterus

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endocardium

the inner lining of the heart

32

endoscope

instrument to visually examine within the body; bronchoscope

33

endotracheal

pertaining to within the trachea

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epithelium

layer of cells covering the external surface of the body and lining the hollow tubes within the body

35

euphoria

condition of exaggerated well-being ("good feeling")

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euthyroid

normal thyroid function

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exophthalmos

eyeballs that protrude from their sockets; associated with hyperthyroidism

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hemiglossectomy

removal (resection) of half the tongue

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hyperglycemia

condition of excessive or high blood sugar; diabetes mellitus

40

hyperplasia

condition of increased formation of cells

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hypertrophy

condition of increased development when individual cells increase in size

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hypodermic injection

placement of a needle below the skin

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hypoglycemia

condition of decreased sugar in the blood; low blood sugar

44

infracostal

pertaining to below the ribs

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insomniac

pertaining to without sleep; a person who cannot sleep

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intercostal

pertaining to between the ribs

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intravenous

pertaining to within a vein

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macrocephaly

condition of larger than normal head

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malaise

general feeling of bodily discomfort

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malignant

cancerous; harmful

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metacarpal bones

hand bones

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metamorphosis

condition of change of shape or form

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metastasis

spread of a malignant tumor beyond its original location to a distant site

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microscope

instrument to view small objects

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neonatal

pertaining to a newborn infant

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neoplasm

new growth

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pancytopenia

deficiency of all cells (blood cells)

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paralysis

destruction of nerve tissue leading to loss of sensation or motion in a part of the body

59

parathyroid gland

four endocrine glands on the posterior (dorsal) region of the thyroid gland

60

percutaneous

pertaining to through the skin

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periosteum

membrane surrounding a bone

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polymorphonuclear

pertaining to a nucleus with several or many shapes; ploymorphonuclear leukocytes are white blood cells with a multilobed nucleus

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polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

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postmortem

after death

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postpartum

after birth

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precancerous

pertaining to occuring before a malignant condition

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prenatal

pertaining to before birth

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prodrome

symptom that appears before the onset of a more serious illness, for example a fever that signals the onset of a viral illness

69

prolapse

sliding forward or downward

70

pseudocyesis

false pregnancy

71

recombinant DNA

insertion of a gene (region of DNA) from an organism into the DNA of another organism

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relapse

sliding or falling back, as in recurrence of symptoms or decline after apparent recovery

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remission

literally, to send back to good health; disappearance of disease symptoms

74

retroflexion

bending backward

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retroperitoneal

pertaining to behind the peritoneum (membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity)

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subcutaneous

pertaining to under the skin

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suprapubic

pertaining to above the pelvis

78

symbiosis

close association between organisms of different species of a state in which two people are emotionally dependent upon each other

79

symmetry

equality of parts, literally measured together

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symphysis

literally, grow together

81

syndactyly

fusion of fingers or toes; a congenital anomaly

82

syndrome

group of symptoms that occur together indicating a particular condition or disorder

83

synthesis

literally, to put (-thesis) together (syn-)

84

tachypnea

rapid breathing

85

transfusion

literally, to pour (-fusion) across (trans-); transference of blood from one person to another

86

transurethral

pertaining to across or through the urethra

87

ultrasonography

the prefix ultra- means beyond or excessive; sonography is the process of recording sound waves; ultrasonography is the use of high frequency sound waves that are beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue

88

unilateral

pertaining to one side