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What do surveys mostly consist of?

Fixed-Alternative Questions
-Coding and analysis is simple
-Reduces variability in responses due to interviewer


Define survey method

Structured questionnaire designed to elicit specific information from respondents


Can surveys have open ended questions?

Absolutely, so something like "explain the factors that led you to buy this product" could be one


What are 4 modes of administration for surveys?

1. Telephone Interviewing
2. Personal Methods
3. Mail Methods
4. Electronic Methods


Two types of telephone interviewing?

Traditional and Computer assisted (most common)


Three types of personal survey methods?

1. In-home (interviewed at home)

2. Mall-Intercept (intercepted at mall)

3. Computer Assisted
(Lab assistant needed while participants respond to questionnaire using computer)


What are mail panels?

So for mail method where large, nationally representative sample of households that agreed to participate in periodic mail questionaires


Two type of electronic methods?

1. By e-mail
(Questions in text of email, data entered or coded)

2. Online surveys
(Dynamic and interactive. Response validation allows better data quality)


What are 4 task factors that indicate when to use personal methods?

1. Complexity of questions is high so you can clarify

2. Use of physical stimuli such as product tests where respondent needs to be there

3. Quantity of data is rich and detailed for long survey

4. Response bias, response rates are higher for more personal methods


When control of the data collection environment is needed, what kind of studies should you do?

Lab studies allow highest control, whereas internet allow lowest control


When is field force most difficult to control?

Field force is most difficult to control when personal method is used and easiest to control when internet method is used


What are the quickest and cheapest survey methods?

Online surveys are the quickest and cheapest whereas personal surveys are the slowest and most expensive


What are 4 respondent factors?

1. Perceived anonymity
(allows for more honest response)

2. Social Desirability
(Personal interaction may increase this bad thing)

3. Low incidence rate
(% of people eligible to participate in a study need to be accessible by method, so if senior, don't use online)

4. Respondent control
(When more control on when and what to answer, it is greater response rate)


What is response rate %

% of total attempted interviews that are completed


What are the response rate for the 4 methods of survey

Mail: 47.3%
Phone: 72.8%
Personal: 81.7%
Online: Much less!


Explain non-response bias, it'll probably be on quiz. How to decrease this?

So if you have 50% squares and circles in population, and then mostly squares respond on your survey because they maybe have more time than circles. Boom, you have response bias.

You can decrease response bias by increasing response rate. You can use a survey method with a higher response rate such as personal or phone, over mail and online.


Are behaviours and attitudes observable?

Behaviours are observable, attitudes are not observable!


To assess attitudes, we rely on what?

Self-report measures


Define self-report measures

Respondents are asked directly for their beliefs or feelings about something


What are 3 self-report attitude scales used?

1. Graphic-Rating Scales
(visual put check along line)

2. Itemized-Rating Scales
(selecting from limited number of choices)

3. Comparative-Ratings Scale
(Subjects indicate comparison by choosing)


What are 3 types of itemized-ratings scales?

1. Summated-Ratings (Likert) Scale
(respond to statements measuring construct)

2. Semantic-Differential Scale
(Bipolar adjectives, so not at all satisfied at one end, very at other)

3. Stapel Scale
(No endpoints)


What is the comparative-Ratings scale?

When subjects indicate relative judgements or comparisons.

The constant-sum method is when you allocate a fixed sum among two or more attributes. So if you have 100 points, you allocate them to the attributes.


What is reverse scaling?

Reduces response set bias because participants realize that they have to pay more attention by reversing order of scale. so 12345, mouse stays on one side, so reverse to 54321 everynow and then.


What is Response Set Bias?

Respondents answer all questions in a similar way (towards low or high end of scale)


What are two types of measures for number of items in a scale assessing an object or phenomenon?

1. Global Measures
(provides overall assessment of an object or phenomenon. SINGLE ITEM)

2. Composite Measures
(This is when you have an assessment of an object or phenomenon with items to assess all relevant aspects (MULTIPLE ITEMS)

Items are usually questions. So multi question for an assessment of an object or phenomenon is usually composite measures


How many number of scale points is usual?

Usually between 5 and 9 scale points


What happens when you have a greater number of scale points?

Causes greater reliability
reduces feasibility


How do you reduce response error when subject is merely guessing?

Adding a don't know or not sure category, however it amy encourage respondents to just not think about an answer


What are the 10 steps of questionnaire design?

1. Specifying what information to be sought

2. Determine the mode of administration

3. Determine content of individual questions

4. Determine form of response to each question

5. Determine wording of each question

6. Determine question sequence

7. Determine physical characteristics of questionnaire

8. Develop a recruiting message

9. Reexamine steps 1-8 and revise

10. Pretest Questionnaire and revise


What are the two forms of response to each question?

1. Open-ended questions

2. Close-ended questions


What 3 criteria when making close-ended questions?

1. Exhaustive
(all possible responses should be included)

2. Mutually Exclusive
(No overlapping response categories within question)

3. Response order bias
(when applicable, randomly order response categories to avoid this bias)


What are 6 things to do when determining wording of each question?

1. use simple words

2. Avoid ambiguous words or questions

3. Avoid leading questions

4. Avoid unstated alternatives

5. Avoid generalizations and estimates

6. Avoid double-barreled questions


What is question-order bias?

This is when earlier questions influence answers to later questions


What are double-barreled questions?

An example is, how satisfied are you with quality and price?

So the response would be useless because you don't know if its more about quality, or price, or what.


What are two types of recruiting messages?

1. Spoken Message
(short, effective script that increases participation rate)

2. Written Message
(Explain purpose of study, length of study, and incentive to participate)


What are two types of pretesting questionnaire and revising?

1. Personal interviews

2. Small-scale implementation

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