Chapter 4 Sensation & Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Sensation & Perception Deck (49):
1

Sensation

Stimulation of sense organ

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Perception

Organization, identification and interpretation of sensation

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Transduction

Conversion of physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system

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Psychophysics

Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus

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Absolute Threshold

Minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus in 50% of the trials

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Just Noticeable Difference

Minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected

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Weber's Law

JND of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity

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Signal Detection Theory

The response to a stimulus depends on both a person's sensitivity in the presence of noise and on a person's decision criterion

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Perceptual Sensitivity

How effectively the perceptual system represents sensory events

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Sensory Adaptation

Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions

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Visual Acuity

Ability to see fine detail

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Length of Light

Determines hue or colour

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Amplitude of Light Wave

Determines brightness

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Purity

Determines saturation

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Retina

Light-sensitive tissue lining the back

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Accommodation

Process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina

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Cones

Detect colour, operate under normal daylight condiitons

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Rods

Become active under low-light conditions for night vision

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Fovea

An area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all

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Blind Spot

Location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina

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Colour Deficiency

One of the cone types is missing

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Colour Opponent System

Pairs of visual neurons work in opposition

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Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Located in the thalamus which receives the inputs

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Ventral Stream

What

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Dorsal Stream

Where

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Binding Problem

How features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world

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Illusory Conjunction

Perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined

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Feature Integration Theory

Focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus, but is required to bind those individual features together

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Perceptual Constancy

Even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent

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Principles of Perceptual Organization

Simplicity
Closure
Continuity
Similarity
Proximity
Common Fate

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Image-based Object Recognition

Object is stored in memory as a template

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Parts-based Object Recognition

Object is stored in geons

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Apparent Motion

Perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations

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Change Blindness

When people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene

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Inattentional Blindness

Failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention

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Pitch

How high or low a sound is

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Loudess

A sound's intensity

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Timber

Sound quality or resonance

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Outer Ear

Auditory canal, eardrum

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Middle Ear

Ossicles (hammer, anvil and stirrup)

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Inner Ear

Cochlea, basilar membrane with tiny hair cells

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Place Code

Different frequencies stimulate signals at specific places along the basilar membrane

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Temporal Code

Registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials

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Haptic Perception

Active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands

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A-delta Fibers

Transmit the initial sharp pain one might feel

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C Fibers

Transmit longer-lasting, duller pain

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Referred Pain

Sensory information from internal and external areas converges

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Gate-Control Theory of Pain

Signals can be stopped by interneurons in the spinal cord

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Vestibular System

Three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each innder ear