Chapter 40 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 40 Deck (48):
1

ecology

study of interactions between organisms and the environment

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global ecology

concerned with the biosphere

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biosphere

global ecosystem

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landscape ecology

focuses on the exchanges of energy materials and organisms across multiple ecosystems

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landscape

mosaic of connected ecosystems

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ecosystem ecology

emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling

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ecosystem

community of organisms in an area and the physical factors in which they interact

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community ecology

deals with the whole array of interacting species

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community

group of populations of different species in an area

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population ecology

focuses on factors affecting population size over time

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population

group of individuals of the same species living in an area

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organismal ecology

studies how an organisms structure physiology and behavior meet environmental challenges

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climate

long term prevailing weather conditions

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abiotic factors

nonliving chemical and physical attributes of the environment

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biotic factors

other organisms that make up the living component of the environment

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biomes

major life zones characterized by vegetation type or physical environment

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disturbance

event that changes a community

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vertical layering

layering of plants on each other

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canopy

top layer of trees

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tropical forests (where do they occur)

occur in equatorial and subequatorial regions

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features of tropical forests

vertical layering
high species diversity
many unknown species
rapid human population growth now destroying many tropical species

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where does the savanna occur

equatorial and subequatorial regions

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features of the savanna

precipitation is seasonal
temperatures are warm
tolerant and fire adapted plants
lot of grasses and forbs
common inhabitants - wildebeests zebras lions and hyenas

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deserts occurrence

in bands near 30 degrees north and south of the equator and in the interior of continents

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features of deserts

precipitation is low and highly variable
can be hot or cold
adapted for heat and desiccation tolerance
plants have increased water storage and decreased leaf area
many animals are nocturnal
several reptiles (snakes lizards) and seed eating rodents

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chaparral occurs ...

in midlatitude coastal regions

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features of the chaparral

highly seasonal precipitation with dry summers and rainy winters
summer is hot, fall winter and spring are cool
dominated by shrubs

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temperate grassland occurs...

at midlatitudes in the interior of continents

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features of temperate grasslands

precipitation is highly seasonal
winters are cold and dry summers hot and wet
plants are mainly grasses& forbs are adapted to droughts
native mammals are large grazers (bison, horses) and small burrowers

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temperate broadleaf forest found at...

midlatitudes

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features of temperate broadleaf forests

significant amounts of precipitation and snow
temperature is seasonal but not extreme
dominant plants include trees
most mammals hibernate or migrate

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northern coniferous forest (taiga) occurs in

Northern north america and eurasia

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features of Taiga

winters are cold
conifers/evergreen trees
migratory birds and large mammals (moose, brown bears)

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tundra occurs in

expansive areas of the arctic

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features of the tundra

vegetation mostly herbaceous
mammals are mainly caribou and bears and migratory animals

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aquatic biomes

occur over a large portion of earth

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photic zones

has sufficient light for photosynthesis

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aphotic zone

receives little lights

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pelagic zone

photic + aphasic zone

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wetlands are..

inundated by water at least sometimes

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estuary

area between rivers and seas

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lakes

body of water that doesn't have a current

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littoral zone

shallow and well lighted area close to shore where plants are

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limnetic zone

deep area too deep to support rooted aquatic plants

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intertidal zones are

periodically submerged and exposed by tides

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coral reef are

formed from calcium carbonate skeletons of corals

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oceanic pelagic zone (OPZ) is

neither close to shore nor the bottom

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marine benthic zone is

consists of the seafloor