Chapter 40 - The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-1992 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 40 - The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-1992 Deck (49)
1

New Right

Outspoken conservative movement of the 1980s that emphaszed such "social issues" as opposition to abortion, the Equal Rights Amendment, pornography, homosexuality, and affirmative action

2

Moral Majority

Political action committee founded by evangelical Reverend Jerry Falwell in 1979 to promote traditional Christian values and oppose feminism, abortion, and gay rights. The group was a major linchpin in the resurgent religious right of the 1980s.

3

neoconservatives

A group that championed free-market capitalism liberated from government restraints, anti-soviet positions in foreign policy, questioned liberal welfare programs, and called for the reassertion of traditional values of individualism and the centrality of the family

4

“ABC” movement

a movement to nominate anybody but Carter in the 1980 elections

5

Prop. 13

Capped the state's real estate tax at 1% of assessed value; radically reduced average property tax levels

6

“welfare state”

a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.

7

“boll weevils”

Conservative southern Demos. Who voted for Repub. issues

8

recession of 1982

end the double-digit inflation -- dropping it to less than 4 percent. The economy made a comeback under Reaganomics + lowering of interest rates although the recovery widened the income gap between rich and poor.

9

supply-side economics

Declared that govt policy should aim to increase the supple of goods and services

10

“yuppies”

Young urban professionals

11

Star Wars/SDI

Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (1983), also known as "Star Wars," called for a land- or space-based shield against a nuclear attack. Although SDI was criticized as unfeasible and in violation of the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, Congress approved billions of dollars for development.

12

arms race

The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.

13

Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine (a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism) was announced, and 1991, the year the Soviet Union collapsed. Nothing much happened, was mostly a stalemate.

14

“Solidarity”

unity (as of a group or class) that produces or is based on community of interests, objectives, and standards

15

Olympic boycott

1980 Summer Olympic boycott was initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan

16

West Bank

The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, forming the bulk of territory now under Israeli control.

17

Israel and Lebanon

The Israeli–Lebanese conflict, widely referred as the South Lebanon conflict, describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon and Syria, the Palestine Liberation Organization, as well as various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon.

18

“Teflon president”

Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

19

Sandinistas

Communist Nicaraguan group that overthrew President Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979, ending 46 years of dictatorship by the Somoza family.

20

“contra” rebels

the right wing rebel groups in Nicaragua supported by the Reagan administration. Fought against the Sandinistas

21

Geraldine Ferraro

In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.

22

Mikhail Gorbachev

Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)

23

glasnost

Openness to end political repression & move toward a greater political freedom for soviet citizens

24

perestroika

An economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union. Intended to increase automation and labor efficiency but it led eventually to the end of central planning in the Russian economy.

25

INF treaty

Arms limitation agreement settled by Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev after several attempts. The treaty banned all intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe and marked a significant thaw in the Cold War

26

Iran-contra affair

Major political scandal of Ronald Reagan's second term. An illicit arrangement of selling "arms for hostages" with Iran and using money to support the contras in Nicaragua, the scandal deeply damaged Reagan's credibility

27

“Reaganomics”

Informal term for Ronald Reagan's economic policies, which focused on reducing taxes, social spending, and government regulation, while increasing outlays for defense.

28

Jerry Falwell

Leader of the religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; rallying cry was "family values"; anti-feminist, anti-homosexuality, anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools

29

Moral Majority

Political action committee founded by evangelical Reverend Jerry Falwell in 1979 to promote traditional Christian values and oppose feminism, abortion, and gay rights. The group was a major linchpin in the resurgent religious right of the 1980s.

30

“identity politics

Political activity and ideas based on the shared experiences of an ethnic, religious, or social group emphasizing gaining power and benefits for the group rather than pursuing ideological or universal or even statewide goals.

31

Sandra Day O’Connor

-Sandra Day O'Connor is a retired associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006.

32

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society. Most often takes the form of employment or college admissions help.

33

Roe v. Wade

Legalized abortion

34

Planned Parenthood v. Casey

-Four of the original five conditions on abortions upheld -- Informed consent, 24 hour waiting period, parental consent for a minor, and the imposition of certain reporting info from abortion facilities. Spousal notification was overturned.

35

“Black Monday”

Oct 19.1987 , when the leading stock-market index plunged 508 points, the largest one-day decline in history, which followed the bailouts of many banks as the federal and international trade deficit continued to grow as falling oil prices hurt the economy of the Southwest, slashing real estate values and undermining hundreds of savings and loan institutions.

36

George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush is an American politician who was the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

37

Tiananmen Square

Tiananmen Square Massacre or the June 4 Massacre as troops with assault rifles and tanks inflicted casualties on unarmed civilians trying to block the military's advance towards Tiananmen Square in the heart of Beijing, which student and other demonstrators had occupied for seven weeks.

38

Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall was a fortified wall made up of concrete and barbed wire made to prevent East Germans escaping to West Berlin. It was one of the most visible signs of the Cold War and the Iron Curtain.

39

CIA

Coordinated the intelligence-gathering activities of various govt agencies.

40

Yugoslavia

Country in SE Europe that was torn apart by ethnic violence and genocide during the 1990s

41

“ethnic cleansing”

Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region. Occurred during the Yugoslavian Civil Wars.

42

Nelson Mandela

-Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

43

Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

44

“Operation Desert Storm

the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours , The code name for the liberation of Kuwait during the Perisan Gulf War of 1991

45

“hundred-hour war”

On February 23, "Operation Desert Storm" began with an overwhelming land attack that lasted four days, saw really little casualties, and ended with Saddam's forces surrender.

46

Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications, and governmental activities.

47

Clarence Thomas

Clarence Thomas currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Is a very conservative member that was confirmed in spite of sexual assault allegations.

48

Anita Hill

Former law clerk for Clarence Thomas, accused him of sexual assault

49

“read my lips…”

Said by George H.W. Bush as he accepted the Republican nomination, stating that he would not tax the American people further. He eventually did raise taxes though as a way to lessen the national budget

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