Chapter 43-The Animal Body and Principles of Regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 43-The Animal Body and Principles of Regulation Deck (49):
1

4 levels of organization of vertebrate body

1. cells
2. tissues
3. organs
4. organ systems

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Tissues

groups of similar or identical cells attached to each other in some manner that perform one or more functions

3

Germ layers

3 fundamental embryonic tissues
-endoderm
-mesoderm
-ectoderm

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4 main tissue types

1. Epithelial
2. Connective (many types)
3. Muscle (3 types)
4. Muscle tissue
5. others

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ORgans

discrete body structure composed of several different tissues that performs one or more functions

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Organ systems

Groups of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body

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2 main body cavities

Dorsal body cavity
Ventral Body cavity

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Dorsal Body cavity

forms within skull and vertebrae

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Ventral body cavity

Bound by rib cage and vertebral column
-Divided by diaphragm into
--thoracic cavity-heart and lungs
---Pericardial cavity-around heart
---Pleural cavity-around lungs
--Abdominopelvic cavity-most organs

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Epithelial Tissue

Tissue composed of epithelial cells; epithelial tissues cover the outer body surface and line most of the inner body cavities/spaces/surfaces and lumens of tubes (blood vessels)

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Functions of Epithelial cells

protection, absorption, secretion, sensation,
possess remarkable regenerative powers

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3 types of Epithelial cells

1. Squamous-flattened cells; thin, allow easy diffusion
2. Cuboidal-cube shaped, absorption and secretion
3. Columnar-taller than they are wide, absorption, sensation

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2 general classes of Epithelial cells

simple epithelial-one layer thick
stratified epithelial-several layers thick

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Basal Membrane

attaches epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissues
-simple epithelial cells all attach to it'
-stratified epithelial tissues, only bottom cells attach

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simple squamous epithelium

-lines lungs and blood capillaries
-delicate nature permits diffusion

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Simple cuboidal epithelium

-lines kidney tubules and several glands

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simple columnar epithelium

-lines airways of respiratory tract and most of the gastrointestinal tract
-contains goblet cells-secrete mucus

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Exocrine glands

Conneced to epithelium by a duct
-sweat, sebaceous, and slivary glands

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Endocrine glands

-Ductless-lost during development
-Secretions (hormones) enter circulation and then travel to target

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What types of Epithelial cells are in the epidermis (skin)

stratified cuboidal and squamous

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Functions of Connective tissue

Connect/hold together, support, protect

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2 classes of connective tissue

-connective tissue proper
--loose or dense, adipose
-special connective tissue
--cartilage, bone, and blood

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Cell types in connective tissue

1. fibroblasts- in many types, fiber making cells
2. Chondroblasts/Chondrocytes-in cartilage
3. Osteoblasts/Osteocytes-in bone
4. Adipose cells-adipose tissue
5. Erythrryocytes, Leukocytes-blood
6. Mast cells-in several connective tissues
7. Suffix Blast=tissue making cell
8. Suffix Cyte-tissue maintaining cell

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3 main types of matrix fibers

collagen
elastic
reticular fibers

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what are connective tissues made of

cells
extracellular matrix-made of protein fibers

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Collagen Matrix Fiber

tough, adds strength, made of collagen protein, not elastic but somewhat flexible, most abundant protein fiber

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Elastic Matrix Fiber

elastic, found in connective tissues that must stretch (blood vessels, lungs), composed of elastin protein

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Reticular Matrix Fibers

Forms meshwork around organs, holds them together

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Loose Connective Tissue

most widely distributed around body
-cells scattered within a matrix that contains a large amount of ground substance
-strengthened by protein ifbers

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Adipose tissue cells

fat cells
-also occur in loose connective tissue
-develop in large groups in certain areas, forming adipose tissue

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Dense connective tissue

-contains less ground substance than loose connective tissue, and more collagen.

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cartilage

special connective tissue
-firm but flexible, support and protection

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Muscle Tissue (3 kinds)

-function is contraction
-smooth-involuntary control
-skeletal-striated muscle, voluntary control
-cardiac-striated muscle, involuntary control

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Smooth Muscle

-found in walls of blood vessels (controls dilation/constriction) and visceral organs (digestive and respiratory tract)
-single nucleus, spindle shaped

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Skeletal Muscle

-usually attached to bone by tendons, so muscle contraction causes bones to move
-Muscle fibers (cells) are multinucleated
-contraction by myofibrils (actin and myosin filaments)

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Cardiac Muscle

Hearts myocardium
-made of smaller, interconnected cells
-single nucleus

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3 parts of neurons

-Cell body-contains the nucleus
-dendrites-highly branched extensions (conduct electrical impulses toward the cell body)
-Axon-single cytoplasmic extension; conducts impulses away form the cell body

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Neuroglia

support cells for neurons
-support and insulate neurons and eliminate wastes/foreign materials in and around neurons
-form myelin sheath with axon

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2 divisions of the nervous system

-Central nervous system: brain and spinal chord, integration and interpretation of input
-Peripheral nervous sytem: nerves and ganglia (collections of cell bodies), communication of signal to and from the CNS to the rest of the body

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Communication and integration in Organ Systems

Three organ systems detect external stimuli and coordinate the bodys responses
-Nervous, sensory, and endocrine systems

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Support and Movement in the Organ Systems

Musculoskeletal systems consists of two interrelated organ systems

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Regulatory and Maintenance in the Organ Systems

Four organ systems regulate and maintain the bodys chemistry
-Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, and Urinary systems

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Defense in the Organ Systems

The body defends itself
-integumentary and immune systems

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Reproduction and Development

The biological continuity of vertebrates
-in Females, the system also nurtures the developing embryo and fetus

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Homeostasis

the dynamic constancy of the internal environment is called homeostasis

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Negative feedback mechanisms in homeostasis

-changing conditions are detected by sensors
-info is fed to an integrating center (brain, spinal chord, endocrine gland)
-compares conditions to a set point
-if conditions deviate too far form a set point, biochemical reaction are initiated to change conditions back toward the set poin

47

Endothermic

Mammals and birds
-maintain and relatively constant body temperature independent of the environment temperature
-changes in temp are detected by hypothalamus in brain

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antagonistic effectors

control internal factors
-have push-pull action
-increasing activity of one effector is accompanied by decrease in the other
-involved in the control of body temp

49

Hypothalamus in temp control

high temp-promotes heat dissipation via sweating and dilation of blood vessels in skin
-low temp, promotes heat conservation via shivering and constriction of blood vessels in skin