Chapter 46-The Endocrine System and Chemical Regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 46-The Endocrine System and Chemical Regulation Deck (22):
1

Paracrine regulators

-many types, nearly all cells in body secrete one type or another, act only at short distances on neighboring cels with complementary receptors

2

Neurotransmitters

-most secreted by neurons into synapses, transmits nerve impulse across chemical sunapse
-some neurontransmitters distributed by blood and act as a hormone (norepinephrine)

3

neurohormones

hormones made by neurons that are transmitted by blood (ex. antidiuretic hormone)

4

Endocrine Hormones

Regulatory chemicals that are secreted by special glands into extracellular fluid and carried by the blood to target tissues/organs

5

3 Classes of Endocrine Hormones

1. Peptide and Proteins (hydrophilic)
-glycoproteins
2. Amino acid derivatives (hydrophilic)
-thyroid hormones
-meltonin
3. Steroids (hydrophobic)
-sex steroids
-corticosteroids

6

Lipophilic Hormones

-non polar, fat soluble
-steroid and thyroid hormones
-travel in blood, attached to transport proteins
-bind to intracellular receptors
-act over brief time period

7

Hydrophilic Hormones

polar, water soluble
-all hormones except steroids and thyroids
-freely soluble in blood
-bind to extracellular receptors, activate kinase cascades
-longer active period

8

Hypothalamus

-Releasing Hormones, Inhibiting Hormones
-Target tissue=adenhoypophysis
-Principle action=acitvate/inhibit release of adenohypophyseal hormones

9

Posterior Pituitary Gland

-Secretes hormones produced by hypothalamus neuron bodies
-Antidiuretic Hormone, Oxytocin
-Target Tissue=kidneys, uterus, mammary glands
-Actions=conserves water (ADH), stimulates contraction, stimulates milk ejection (in that order for hormones/tissues)

10

Anterior Pituitary gland

-Produces 7 essential hormones, act on and regulate other endocrine glands
-controlled by hypothalamus
--negative feedback inhibition
-Peptide hormones
1. ACTH-Adrenal Cortex-Stimulates secretion of adrenal hormones
2. MSH-SKin-stimulates color change in reptiles
-Protein hormones
3. Growth Hormone-many organs-stimulates bone growth, protein synthesis
-Glycoprotein Hormones
4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-Thyroid gland-stimulates thyroxine secretion
5. Luteinizing hormone-gonads-stimulates ovulation
6. Prolactin-mammary glands- milk production
7. Follicle stimulating hormone-gonads-stimulates spermatogensis in males, development of ovarian follicles in females

11

Thyroid Gland

1. Thryroid Hormones-most cells-stimulates metabolic rate
2. calcitonin-bone-inhibits loss of calcium from bone

12

Parathyroid Gland

1. Parathyroid Hormone-bone, kidneys, digestive tract-raises blood calcium level, stimulates calcium reabsorption in kidneys
-4 small glands attached to thyroid

13

Adrenal Medulla

-inner portion of Adrenal Glands
-Epinephrine and Norepinephrine-muscle-initiates stress response

14

Adrenal Cortex

Stimulated by anterior pituitary hormone
-Glucocorticoids-many organs-raises blood glucose level
-Mineralocorticoids-kidney tubules-maintains proper balance of NA+ and k+ in blood

15

Pancreas

Exocrine and Endocrine Gland
-secretes insulin-liver-lowers blood glucose levels
-glucagon-liver-raises blood glucose levels

16

Pineal Gland

-located in roof of third ventricle of brain
-melatonin-gonads, brain, pigment-regulates biological rhythms

17

Testis

-testosterone-stimulates development of sex organs, stimulates secondary sex characteristics in males

18

Ovaries

Progesterone-uterus-completes preparation for pregnancy, stimulates development

19

Pituitary gland

-Master gland-consists of anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary

20

Anterior Pituitary Disorders

-growth hormone
-Hypersecretion=gigantism
-hyposecretion-pituitary dwarfism

21

Diabetes Mellitus

-Diabetics cannot take up glucose from blood
-type 1=individuals lack insulin secreting beta cells, treated by daily injections of insulin
-type 2=very low number of insulin receptors, treated by diet and exercise

22

What are the 5 steroid hormones

-minerocorticoids (aldosterone)
-glucocorticoids (cortisol)
-estradiol
-progesterone
-testosterone