Chapter 47: Mobility and Immobility [Practice Test] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 47: Mobility and Immobility [Practice Test] Deck (162):
0

What is meant by "concentric tension" of muscles?
a. Increased muscle contraction results in movement.
b. The speed and direction of movement are controlled.
c. Tension causes no shortening or active movement.
d. Tension does not result in isotonic contraction.

ANS: A
In concentric tension, increased muscle contraction causes muscle shortening, resulting in movement. Eccentric tension helps control the speed and direction of movement. Concentric and eccentric muscle actions are necessary for active movement and are referred to as dynamic or isotonic contraction. Isometric contraction (static contraction) causes an increase in muscle tension or muscle work but no shortening or active movement of the muscle.

1

Describe your normal daily activity. Has this changed recently?
How have your appetite and diet change since you've had problems moving around?
Describe what you eat and a normal day.
What part of the nursing process is this?

Immobility Assessment

2

Description: increased convexity in curvature of the lumbar spine.

Cause: congenital condition, rickets, osteoporosis, tuberculosis of spine.

Treatment: spine stretching exercises, sleeping without pillows, using bedboard, bracing, and spinal fusion based on cause and severity.


What postural abnormality is this?

Kyphosis

3

In this complication related to immobility there is a proportional decline in the patient's ability to cough productively. The distribution of mucus in the bronchi increases especially when the patient is in supine, prone, or lateral position. Mucus accumulates in the dependent regions of the airways.

Atelectasis

4

Muscles that attach to bones to provide the needed strength to move an object use which of the following to obtain their objective?
a. Posture
b. Leverage
c. Isometric contraction
d. Muscle tone

ANS: B
Leverage is an inducing or compelling force that occurs when specific bones, such as the humerus, ulna, and radius, and associated joints, such as the elbows, act together as a lever. Posture is the position of the body in relation to the surrounding space. Isometric contraction causes an increase in muscle tension but no active movement. Muscle tone is the normal state of balanced muscle tension.

5

Break in skin integrity.

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Skin Abnormalities

6

During voluntary movement, impulses descend from the motor strip to the spinal cord. Impulses stimulate muscles by way of
a. Ligaments.
b. Tendons.
c. Neurotransmitters.
d. Cartilage.

ANS: C
Through a complex process, neurotransmitters, or chemicals such as acetylcholine transfer electrical impulses from the nerve across the neuromuscular junction to the muscle. The neurotransmitter reaches a muscle and stimulates it. Ligaments are white, shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue that bind joints together and connect bones and cartilages. Tendons connect muscle to bone. Cartilage is nonvascular, supporting connective tissue located chiefly in the joints and in the thorax, trachea, larynx, nose, and ear.

7

Orthostatic hypotension.
Increased heart rate.
Third heart sound.
Weak peripheral pulses.
Peripheral edema.

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Cardiovascular Abnormalities

8

Although isometric contractions do not result in muscle shortening, the nurse understands that isometric contractions
a. Result in decreased energy expenditure.
b. Are always desirable regardless of patient condition.
c. Are necessary for the active movement of muscles.
d. Result in increased energy expenditure.

ANS: D
Although isometric contractions do not result in muscle shortening, energy expenditure increases. It is important to understand the energy expenditure associated with isometric exercises because they are sometimes contraindicated in certain illnesses. Isometric contractions increase muscle tension but not active movement of the muscle.

10

Joints are the connections between bones. The joint that is freely movable is known as the _____ joint.
a. Synostotic
b. Cartilaginous
c. Fibrous
d. Synovial

ANS: D
The synovial joint, or true joint, is a freely movable joint in which contiguous bony surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and are connected by ligaments lined with a synovial membrane. The synostotic joint refers to bones jointed by bones. No movement is associated with this type of joint. In the cartilaginous joint, or synchondrosis joint, cartilage unites bony components. When bone growth is complete, the joints ossify. The fibrous joint, or syndesmosis joint, is a joint in which a ligament or membrane unites two bony surfaces, permitting a limited amount of movement only.

11

This is a major threat to physical safety and contributes to a fear of falling and self imposed restrictions on activity.

Impaired balance

12

The term body alignment refers to positioning of the joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles while standing, sitting, and lying. A term that is similar to body alignment is
a. Weight.
b. Posture.
c. Friction.
d. Body mechanics.

ANS: B
The terms body alignment and posture are similar and refer to positioning of the joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles while standing, sitting, and lying. Weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity. Friction is a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement. Body mechanics is a term used to describe the coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

13

Without balance control, the center of gravity is displaced, thus creating risk for falls and subsequent injuries. Balance is enhanced by
a. Maintaining a narrow base of support.
b. Creating a high center of gravity.
c. Disregarding body posture.
d. Keeping a low center of gravity.

ANS: D
Without balance control, the center of gravity is displaced, thus creating risk for falls and subsequent injuries. Balance is enhanced by keeping the center of gravity of the body low with a wide base of support and by maintaining correct body posture.

14

Immobilized patients frequently have hypercalcemia, placing them at risk for
a. Osteoporosis.
b. Renal calculi.
c. Pressure ulcers.
d. Thrombus formation.

ANS: B
Renal calculi are calcium stones that lodge in the renal pelvis or pass through the ureters. Immobilized patients are at risk for calculi because they frequently have hypercalcemia. Osteoporosis is caused by accelerated bone loss. A pressure ulcer is an impairment of the skin that results from prolonged ischemia (decreased blood supply) within tissues. A thrombus is an accumulation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, which sometimes occludes the lumen of the vessel

15

Patients on bed rest or otherwise immobile are at risk for
a. Increased metabolic rate.
b. Increased diarrhea (peristalsis).
c. Altered metabolic function.
d. Increased appetite.

ANS: C
Immobility disrupts normal metabolic functioning: decreasing the metabolic rate, altering the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (nutritional function); causing fluid, electrolyte, and calcium imbalances; and causing gastrointestinal disturbances such as decreased appetite and slowing of peristalsis.

16

In caring for a patient who is immobile, it is important for the nurse to understand that
a. The effects of immobility are the same for everyone.
b. Immobility helps maintain sleep-wake patterns.
c. Changes in role and self-concept may lead to depression.
d. Immobile patients are often eager to help in their own care.

ANS: C
The immobilized patient often becomes depressed because of changes in role and self-concept. Every patient responds to immobility differently. Immobility or bed rest frequently affects coping and creates sleep-wake alterations because of changes in routine or in the environment. Because immobilization removes the patient from a daily routine, he or she has more time to worry about disability. Worrying quickly increases the patient's depression, causing withdrawal. Withdrawn patients often do not want to participate in their own care.

17

Immobility is a major risk factor for pressure ulcers. In caring for the patient who is immobilized, the nurse needs to be aware that
a. Breaks in skin integrity are easy to heal.
b. Preventing a pressure ulcer is more expensive than treating one.
c. Immobilized patients can develop skin breakdown within 3 hours.
d. Pressure ulcers are caused by a sudden influx of oxygen to the tissue.

ANS: C
Immobility is a major risk factor for pressure ulcers. Any break in the integrity of the skin is difficult to heal. Preventing a pressure ulcer is much less expensive than treating one; therefore, preventive nursing interventions are imperative. An older adult who is immobilized can develop skin breakdown within 3 hours. Tissue metabolism depends on the supply of oxygen and nutrients to and the elimination of metabolic wastes from the blood. Pressure affects cellular metabolism by decreasing or totally eliminating tissue circulation.

18

Description: exaggeration of anterior convex curve of lumbar spine.

Cause: congenital condition, temporary condition ex. pregnancy.

Treatment: spine stretching exercises based on the cause.


What postural abnormality is this?

Lordosis

19

The nurse is caring for a patient who has been diagnosed with a stroke. As part of her ongoing care, the nurse should
a. Encourage the patient to perform as many self-care activities as possible.
b. Provide a complete bed bath to promote patient comfort.
c. Place the patient on bed rest to prevent fatigue.
d. Understand that the patient will not eat owing to a decreased energy need.

ANS: A
Nurses should encourage the patient to perform as many self-care activities as possible, thereby maintaining the highest level of mobility. Sometimes nurses inadvertently contribute to a patient's immobility by providing unnecessary help with activities such as bathing and transferring. Placing the patient on bed rest without sufficient ambulation leads to loss of mobility and functional decline, resulting in weakness, fatigue, and increased risk for falls. Anorexia and insufficient assistance with eating lead to malnutrition.

20

The nurse is assessing the way the patient walks. The manner of walking is known as the patient's
a. Activity tolerance.
b. Body alignment.
c. Range of motion.
d. Gait.

ANS: D Gait

21

When assessing the body alignment of a patient while he or she is standing, the nurse is aware that
a. When observed posteriorly, the hips and shoulders form an "S" pattern.
b. When observed laterally, the spinal curves align in a reversed "S" pattern.
c. The arms should be crossed over the chest or in the lap.
d. The feet should be close together with toes pointed out.

ANS: B
When the patient is observed laterally, the head is erect and the spinal curves are aligned in a reversed "S" pattern. When observed posteriorly, the shoulders and hips are straight and parallel. The arms hang comfortably at the sides. The feet are slightly apart to achieve a base of support, and the toes are pointed forward.

22

The nurse is evaluating the body alignment of a patient in the sitting position. In this position
a. The body weight is directly on the buttocks only.
b. Both feet are supported on the floor with ankles flexed.
c. The edge of the seat is in contact with the popliteal space.
d. The arms hang comfortably at the sides.

ANS: B
Both feet are supported on the floor, and the ankles are comfortably flexed. With patients of short stature, a footstool is used to ensure that the ankles are comfortably flexed. Body weight is evenly distributed on the buttocks and thighs. A 1- to 2-inch space is maintained between the edge of the seat and the popliteal space on the posterior surface of the knee to ensure that no pressure is placed on the popliteal artery or nerve. The patient's forearms are supported on the armrest, in the lap, or on a table in front of the chair.

23

The nurse is assessing body alignment for a patient who is immobilized. To do this, the nurse must
a. Place the patient in the supine position.
b. Remove the pillow from under the patient's head.
c. Insert positioning supports to help the patient.
d. Place the patient in a lateral position.

ANS: D
Assess body alignment for a patient who is immobilized or bedridden with the patient in the lateral position, not supine. Remove all positioning support from the bed, except for the pillow under the head.

24

The nurse must assess the patient for hazards of immobility by performing a head-to-toe physical assessment. When assessing the respiratory system, the nurse should
a. Assess the patient at least every 4 hours.
b. Inspect chest wall movements during the expiratory cycle only.
c. Auscultate the entire lung region to assess lung sounds.
d. Focus auscultation on the upper lung fields.

ANS: C
Auscultate the entire lung region to identify diminished breath sounds, crackles, or wheezes. Perform a respiratory assessment at least every 2 hours for patients with restricted activity. Inspect chest wall movements during the full inspiratory-expiratory cycle. Focus auscultation on the dependent lung fields because pulmonary secretions tend to collect in these lower regions.

25

The nurse is aware that patients who are immobile are at increased risk of developing deep vein thromboses (DVTs). Because of this, the nurse should
a. Make sure that elastic stockings are not removed.
b. Measure the calf circumference of both legs.
c. Dorsiflex the foot while assessing for patient discomfort.
d. Measure both ankles to determine size.

ANS: B
Measure bilateral calf circumference and record it daily as an assessment for DVT. Homans' sign, or calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot, is contraindicated in patients when a DVT is suspected. It is no longer a reliable indicator in assessing for DVT, and it is present in other conditions. Remove the patient's elastic stockings and/or sequential compression devices (SCDs) every 8 hours, and observe the calves for redness, warmth, and tenderness. Bilateral calf circumferences (not ankle) should be measured daily to detect unilateral increases that may be an early indication of thrombosis.

26

When assessing the skin of an immobilized patient, the nurse should
a. Assess the skin at least every 4 hours.
b. Use a standardized tool such as the Braden Scale.
c. Use nursing instinct instead of a standardized tool.
d. Have special times for inspection so as to not interrupt routine care.

ANS: B
Consistently use a standardized tool, such as the Braden Scale. This identifies patients with high risk of impaired skin integrity. Nursing instinct in this case is not enough. At a minimum, skin assessment occurs every 2 hours. Continually assess the patient's skin for breakdown and color changes such as pallor or redness. Continual assessment reduces the need for the creation of special times for inspection.

27

The nurse is caring for an elderly patient with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient is confused and agitated. It is important for the nurse to realize that confusion in the elderly is
a. Not a normal expectation.
b. Purely psychological in origin.
c. Not a common manifestation with UTIs.
d. Acceptable and needs no further assessment.

ANS: A
Acute confusion in older adults is not normal; a thorough nursing assessment is the priority.
Abrupt changes in personality often have a physiological cause such as surgery, a medication reaction, a pulmonary embolus, or an acute infection. For example, the primary symptom of compromised older patients with an acute urinary tract infection or fever is confusion. Identifying confusion is an important component of the nurse's assessment.

28

In preparing to create a nursing diagnosis for a patient who is immobile, it is important for the nurse to understand that
a. Physiological issues should be the major focus.
b. Psychosocial issues should be the major focus.
c. Developmental issues should be the major focus.
d. All dimensions are important to health.

ANS: D
Often the physiological dimension is the major focus of nursing care for patients with impaired mobility. Thus the psychosocial and developmental dimensions are neglected. Yet all dimensions are important to health.

29

The patient who is experiencing an alteration in mobility often has one or more nursing diagnoses. The nurse would use the diagnosis of Impaired physical mobility for a patient who is
a. Not completely immobile.
b. Completely immobile.
c. At risk for multisystem problems.
d. At risk for single-system involvement.

ANS: A
The diagnosis of Impaired physical mobility applies to the patient who has some limitation but is not completely immobile. The diagnosis of Risk for disuse syndrome applies to the patient who is immobile and at risk for multisystem problems because of inactivity. Beyond these diagnoses, the list of potential diagnoses is extensive because immobility affects multiple body systems.

30

The patient has the nursing diagnosis of Impaired physical mobility related to pain in the left shoulder. This diagnosis means that the nurse should
a. Encourage the patient to do self-care.
b. Keep the patient as mobile as possible.
c. Encourage the patient to perform ROM.
d. Assist the patient with comfort measures.

ANS: D
The diagnosis related to pain requires the nurse to assist the patient with comfort measures so that the patient is then willing and better able to move. Pain must be controlled before so that the patient will not be reluctant to initiate movement. The diagnosis of Reluctance to initiate movement requires interventions aimed at keeping the patient as mobile as possible and encouraging the patient to do self-care and ROM. This cannot be accomplished until comfort is achieved.

31

In developing an individualized plan of care for a patient, it is important for the nurse to
a. Set goals that are a little beyond the capabilities of the patient.
b. Use his or her judgment and not be swayed by family desires.
c. Establish goals that are measurable and realistic.
d. Explain that without taking alignment risks, there can be no progress.

ANS: C
The nurse must develop an individualized plan of care for each nursing diagnosis and must set goals that are individualized, realistic, and measurable. The nurse should set realistic expectations for care and should include the patient and family when possible. The goals focus on preventing problems or risks to body alignment and mobility.

32

When creating a plan of care for a patient who is experiencing alterations in mobility, the nurse
a. Cannot delegate interventions to nursing assistive personnel.
b. Is solely responsible for modifying ADLs.
c. Consults other health care team members to help plan therapy.
d. Consults wound care specialists only when wounds are apparent.

ANS: C
The nurse should collaborate with other health care team members such as physical or occupational therapists when considering mobility needs. Nurses often delegate some interventions to nursing assistive personnel. Nursing assistive personnel may turn and position patients, apply elastic stockings, help patient use the incentive spirometer, etc. Occupational therapists are a resource for planning ADLs that patients need to modify or relearn. It is especially important in priority setting to make sure not to overlook potential complications. Many times, actual problems such as pressure ulcers are addressed only after they develop. They should be addressed before they develop.

33

The patient is being admitted to the neurological unit with the diagnosis of stroke. The nurse should begin discharge planning
a. At the time of admission.
b. The day before the patient is to be discharged.
c. As soon as the patient's discharge destination is known.
d. When outpatient therapy will no longer be needed.

ANS: A
Discharge planning begins when a patient enters the health care system. In anticipation of the patient's discharge from an institution, the nurse makes appropriate referrals or consults a case manager or a discharge planner to ensure that the patient's needs will be met at home. Referrals to home care or outpatient therapy are often needed.

34

Of the following nursing goals, which is the most appropriate for a patient who has had a total hip replacement?
a. The patient will walk 1000 feet using her walker by the time of discharge.
b. The patient will ambulate by the time of discharge.
c. The patient will ambulate briskly on the treadmill by the time of discharge.
d. The nurse will assist the patient to ambulate in the hall.

ANS: A
"The patient will walk 1000 feet using her walker by the time of discharge" is individualized, realistic, and measurable. "The patient will ambulate by the time of discharge" is not measurable because it does not specify the distance. Even though we can see that the patient will ambulate, this does not quantify how far. "Ambulating briskly on a treadmill" is not realistic for this patient. The last option focuses on the nurse, not the patient, and is not measurable.

35

The nurse is working on an orthopedic rehabilitation unit that requires lifting and positioning of patients. The nurse is aware that the rate of occupational injury and illness in the hospital setting
a. Is the same as in the private industry sector.
b. Is higher than in the nursing home setting.
c. Is about 4.4%.
d. Has decreased in recent years.

ANS: C
The rate of work-related injury in health care settings has increased in recent years. In 2006, 4.4 cases per 100 full-time workers who experienced occupational injury and illness were reported compared with 5 cases per 100 for private industry overall. The rate for nursing homes was 10.1 per 100 workers.

36

In caring for immobile patients, the nurse understands that back injuries occur
a. Only when lifting patients.
b. Only when transferring patients.
c. Only when providing direct patient care.
d. With many clinical activities.

ANS: D
Musculoskeletal injuries among health care workers are related not only to lifting and transferring patients. Nurses spend time in many activities involving bending and twisting, which also cause injury. Examples of such activities include lifting objects, pushing beds, and providing direct patient care such as bathing, feeding, dressing, and undressing patients

37

To prevent injury, the nurse should not begin a task (e.g., moving a bed from one room to another, lifting heavy objects) until the task can be completed safely. To prevent injury
a. Keep the weight as far from the body as possible.
b. Keep the knees still to prevent loss of balance.
c. Tighten abdominal muscles and tuck the pelvis.
d. Bend at the waist to move weight forward.

ANS: C
Follow these steps to prevent injury: (1) tighten abdominal muscles and tuck the pelvis to provide balance and help protect the back; (2) keep the weight to be lifted as close to the body as possible; (3) bend at the knees to maintain the center of gravity, and use the stronger leg muscles; and (4) maintain the trunk erect and the knees bent so that multiple muscle groups work together in a coordinated manner.
The patient is immobilized after undergoing hip replacement surgery.

38

90% of all _______ begin in the deep veins of the lower extremities.
A dislodged _______ is called emboli and it can travel to the circulatory system to the lungs and impair ____ and ______, resulting in tachycardia and shortness of breath. If these travel to the lungs they can be _____.

DVT
Venous Thrombus
circulation and oxygenation
life-threatening

39

Which of the following would place the patient at risk for hemorrhage?
a. Thick, tenacious pulmonary secretions
b. Low-molecular-weight heparin doses to prevent DVT
c. SCDs wrapped around the legs to prevent DVT formation
d. Elastic stockings (TED hose) to promote venous return

ANS: B
Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are the most widely used drugs in the prophylaxis of DVT. Because bleeding is a potential side effect of these medications, continually assess the patient for signs of bleeding. Pulmonary secretions that become thick and tenacious are difficult to remove and are a sign of inadequate hydration, but not of bleeding. SCDs consist of sleeves or stockings made of fabric or plastic that are wrapped around the leg and are secured with Velcro. They decrease venous stasis by increasing venous return through the deep veins of the legs. They do not usually cause bleeding. Elastic stockings also aid in maintaining external pressure on the muscles of the lower extremities and in promoting venous return. They do not usually cause bleeding.

41

The nurse needs to transfer the patient from the bed to the chair. The nurse should
a. Avoid using a transfer or gait belt around the patient's waist prior to transfer.
b. Not allow the patient to help in any way because resistance can lead to injury.
c. Assess for the need of a mechanical lift and help.
d. Ensure that the patient has stockings on his feet for transfer.

ANS: C
Careful assessment of your patient's ability to assist in the positioning technique to be used is extremely important. Consider the use of a mechanical lift. Your role in assisting your patient to a sitting position is to guide and instruct. If the patient can bear weight and move to a sitting position independently, allow him or her to do so and offer assistance. A transfer belt maintains stability of the patient during transfer and reduces risk for falls. Ensure that the patient has stable nonskid shoes on his feet.

42

The nurse is caring for a patient who cannot bear weight but needs to be transferred from the bed to a chair. The nurse opts to use a mechanical lift (Hoyer lift). The nurse understands that when this lift is used, the
a. Straps need to be removed before lowering the patient to the chair.
b. Horseshoe-shaped base should be on the opposite side from the chair.
c. Longer straps hook to the bottom of the sling.
d. Short straps are hooked to the bottom of the sling.

ANS: C
The nurse should attach the hooks on the strap to the holes in the sling. Short straps hook to top holes of the sling; longer straps hook to the bottom of the sling. This prevents the sling from flipping upside down. The horseshoe-shaped base goes under the side of the bed on the side with the chair. Position the patient and lower slowly into the chair in accordance with manufacturer guidelines to safely guide the patient into the back of the chair as the seat descends; then remove the straps and the mechanical/hydraulic lift.

43

Description: internal rotation of forefoot or entire foot common in infants.

Cause: congenital condition, habit.

Treatment: growth, wearing reversed shoes.

What postural abnormality is this?

Pigeon Toes

44

The nurse is caring for a patient with a spinal cord injury and notices that the patient's hips have a tendency to rotate externally when the patient is supine. To help prevent injury secondary to this rotation, the nurse can use
a. A trochanter roll.
b. The trapeze bar.
c. Hand rolls.
d. Hand-wrist splints.

B. Trochanter Roll

A trochanter roll prevents external rotation of the hips when the patient is in a supine position.

45

The patient is unable to move himself and needs to be pulled up in bed. For this repositioning to be done safely, the nurse must understand that
a. The procedure can be done by one person if the bed is in the flat position.
b. Side rails should be in the up position to prevent the patient from falling out.
c. The pillow should be placed under the patient's head and shoulders.
d. Assistive devices or additional nurses should be used.

ANS: D
This is not a one-person task. Helping a patient move up in bed without help from other coworkers or without the aid of an assistive device (e.g., friction-reducing pad) is not recommended and is not considered safe for the patient or the nurse. When pulling a patient up in bed, the bed should be flat or in a Trendelenburg position (when tolerated) to gain gravity assistance, and the side rails should be down. Remove the pillow from under head and shoulders and place it at the head of the bed to prevent striking the patient's head against the head of the bed.

47

The nurse is caring for a patient who is immobile and needs to be turned every 2 hours. The patient has poor lower extremity circulation, and the nurse is concerned about irritation of the patient's toes. One strategy that the nurse could use is
a. A foot cradle.
b. A trochanter roll.
c. The trapeze bar.
d. Hand rolls.

ANS: A
A foot cradle may be used in patients with poor peripheral circulation as a means of reducing pressure on the tips of a patient's toes. A trochanter roll prevents external rotation of the hips when the patient is in a supine position. Hand rolls maintain the thumb in slight adduction and in opposition to the fingers. The trapeze bar is a triangular device that hangs down from a securely fastened overhead bar that is attached to the bed frame. It allows the patient to pull with the upper extremities to raise the trunk off the bed, to assist in transfer from bed to wheelchair, or to perform upper arm exercises.

48

In applying for a job on a nursing unit that requires frequent patient positioning, the nurse should be aware that nurses
a. Are at low risk for back injury.
b. Are especially at risk for high back injuries.
c. Should be aware of agency policies.
d. Should not need to use assistive devices.

ANS: C
Nurses and other health care staff are especially at risk for injury to lumbar muscles when lifting, transferring, or positioning immobilized patients. Therefore, the nurse should be aware of agency policies and protocols that protect staff and patients from injury. Current evidence supports that using mechanical or other ergonomic assistive devices is the safest way to reposition and lift patients who are unable to do these activities themselves.

49

The _______ protects vital organs and aids in calcium regulation. _____ store calcium and release it into the circulation as needed. Patient's with decreased calcium regulation and metabolism are at risk for developing this?

Skeletal System
Bones
Osteoporosis & Pathological Fractures

50

When preparing a plan of care for an immobilized patient, the nurse should
a. Use established expected outcomes to evaluate the patient's response to care.
b. Display an air of professional superiority when interventions are not successful.
c. Never vary from interventions that have been successful for other patients.
d. Use objective data only in determining whether interventions have been successful.

ANS: A
The nurse should use established expected outcomes to evaluate the patient's response to care. The nurse should use creativity when designing new interventions to improve the patient's mobility status and should display humility when identifying those interventions that were not successful. Ask if the patient's expectations of care are being met and use objective data to determine the success of interventions.

51

The director of a nursing home has decided to institute ergonomic programs in the facility because these programs increase employee satisfaction and have been shown to
a. Be ineffective in reducing injury.
b. Be cost neutral in budgeting.
c. Enhance recruitment.
d. Decrease retention rates.

ANS: C
Research has demonstrated that ergonomic programs in health care facilities reduce costs, injuries to employees, and missed workdays. These programs also enhance recruitment, retention, and satisfaction of employees.

52

The nurse needs to reposition a 300-lb patient. Which of the following strategies is most likely to prevent back injury?
a. Turn the patient alone using the lift pad and applying pillows.
b. Put the bed in Trendelenburg and pull from the head of the bed.
c. Assess and obtain the number of people needed to help.
d. Bend at the waist and pull the lift pad using the arms.

ANS: C
Assess and determine the number of people needed; to prevent injury, do not start until the task can be completed safely. Assess the situation and do not turn the patient alone if this cannot be done safely. The trunk should be erect and the knees bent, so that multiple muscle groups (not just the arms) work together in a coordinated manner. This is not a one-person task: DO NOT PULL FROM THE HEAD OF THE BED.

53

The nurse is caring for a patient who has had a stroke causing total paralysis of the right side. To help maintain joint function and to prevent contractures, passive ROM will be initiated. When should therapy begin?
a. After the acute phase of the disease has passed
b. As soon as the ability to move is lost
c. Once the patient enters the rehab unit
d. No ROM is needed.

ANS: B
Passive ROM exercises should begin as soon as the patient's ability to move the extremity or joint is lost. The nurse should not wait for the acute phase to end. It may be some time before the patient enters the rehab unit, and contractures could form by then. ROM is certainly needed in this patient.

54

The nurse is admitting a patient who has been diagnosed as having had a stroke. The physician writes orders for "ROM as needed." The nurse understands that
a. The nurse will have to move all the patient's extremities.
b. The patient is unable to move his extremities.
c. Further assessment of the patient is needed.
d. The patient needs to restrict his mobility as much as possible.

ANS: C
Further assessment of the patient is needed. Some patients are able to move some joints actively, whereas the nurse passively moves others. With a weak patient, the nurse may have to support an extremity while the patient performs the movement. In general, exercises need to be as active as health and mobility allow.

55

While performing passive ROM exercises, the nurse stands at the side of the bed closest to the joint being exercised and
a. Forces the joint just a bit beyond the point of resistance.
b. Moves the joint until the patient complains of pain.
c. Repeats each movement twice.
d. Carries out movements slowly and smoothly.

ANS: D
The nurse carries out movements slowly and smoothly, just to the point of resistance. ROM should not cause pain. Never force a joint beyond its capacity. Each movement needs to be repeated five times during the session.

56

Describe any changes you've noticed in your ability to walk and take care of yourself and a daily basis?
Have you ever experienced any stiffness and swelling pain or difficulty with moving? If so describe how you felt.
Have you noticed any shortness of breath?
What part of the nursing process is this?

Mobility Assessment

57

The patient is admitted to a skilled care unit for rehabilitation 10 days after the surgical procedure of fixation of a fractured left hip and has a nursing diagnosis of Impaired physical mobility related to musculoskeletal impairment from surgery and pain with movement. The patient is able to use a walker but needs assistance ambulating and transferring from the bed to the chair. Which of the following nursing interventions is most appropriate for this patient?
a. Obtain assistance and physically transfer the patient to the chair.
b. Assist the patient with ambulation and measure how far she walks.
c. Withhold pain medication so that she can ambulate with a clear mind.
d. Bring the patient to the cafeteria for group instruction on ambulation.

B.

To determine her baseline level of activity to measures future outcomes.

58

The patient has been diagnosed with a spinal cord injury and needs to be repositioned using the logrolling technique to keep the spinal column in straight alignment. Which of the following is the proper technique for logrolling?
a. Obtain assistance from at least two or three other people.
b. Have the patient reach for the opposite side rail when turning.
c. Move the top part of the patient's torso, then the bottom part.
d. Do not use pillows after turning because the softness causes misalignment.

ANS: A
At least three to four people are needed to perform this skill safely. Have the patient cross arms on chest to prevent injury to the arms. Move the patient as one unit in a smooth, continuous motion on the count of three. Gently lean the patient as a unit back toward pillows for support.

59

Decreased urine output.
Cloudy or concentrated urine.
Decreased frequency of bowel movements.
Distended bladder and abdomen.
Decreased bowel sounds.

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Elimination Abnormalities

60

Correct body alignment reduces strain on musculoskeletal structures and contributes to balance. Balance control is attained by (Select all that apply.)
a. Keeping the body's center of gravity high.
b. Maintaining a wide base of support.
c. Keeping the body's center of gravity low.
d. Maintaining correct body posture.
e. Maintaining immobility to prevent falls.

ANS: B, C, D
Without balance control, the center of gravity is displaced, thus creating risk for falls and injuries. Balance is enhanced by keeping the body's center of gravity low (not high) with a wide base of support and by maintaining correct body posture. Prolonged immobility leads to impaired balance.

61

The nurse is caring for a patient with the diagnosis of Impaired physical mobility. The nurse needs to be alert for which of the following potential complications? (Select all that apply.)
a. Pulmonary emboli
b. Pneumonia
c. Impaired skin integrity
d. Somnolence
e. Increased socialization

ANS: A, B, C, D

62

The nurse is caring for a patient who has had a recent stroke and is paralyzed on his left side. He has no respiratory or cardiac issues, but he cannot walk. He becomes extremely frustrated when he cannot button his shirt and cannot feed himself because he was left-handed. He has shown no signs of dysphagia, but he has been eating very little and has lost 2 lbs. He asks the nurse, "How can I go home like this? I'm not getting better. I can't ask my wife to take care of me like a baby." Of the following list of health care team members, which member would the nurse need to consult? (Select all that apply.)
a. Physical therapy
b. Occupational therapy
c. Respiratory therapy
d. Cardiac rehabilitation
e. Psychology services

ANS: A, B, E
Physical therapists are a resource for planning ROM or strengthening exercises, and occupational therapists are a resource for planning ADLs that patients need to modify or re-learn. Referral to a mental health advanced practice nurse, a licensed social worker, or a physiologist to assist with coping or other psychosocial issues is also wise. Because the patient exhibits good cardiac and respiratory function, respiratory therapy and cardiac rehabilitation probably are not needed at this time.

63

Nurses use information about body alignment, balance, gravity, and friction, when implementing nursing interventions such as?

Positioning
Fall risk
Transferrability

64

Medications that cause dizziness and prolonged immobility also affect this?

Balance

65

A normal person center of gravity is usually at _____ to ____ of standing height and at the midline

55% - 57%

66

As a result of this blood vessels in the underlying tissue are stretched and damaged, resulting in impeded blood flow to the deep tissues.

Shearing Force

67

Patients with altered _________function also experience diminished red blood cell production and fatigue easily because of reduced ________ which results in the bloods decreased oxygen-carrying ability. This fatigue decreases their ________ and increases the ________.

Bone Marrow
Hemoglobin
Mobility
Risk for Falls

68

This is the biggest and strongest tendon in the body?

Achilles Tendon aka
Tendo Calcaneus

69

Anatomical structure and attachment to the skeleton enhance contractile elements of the _______ because of their ability to contract and relax they are there working elements of movement.

Skeletal Muscle

70

Although isometric contractions do not result in muscle shortening _______ increases.

energy expenditure

71

Energy expenditure is an ______ respiratory rate and __________ heart rate associated with _________ exercises.

Increased
Increased
Isometric

72

___________ exercises are sometimes contraindicated in certain patient illnesses. Two examples of illnesses?

Isometric

myocardial infarction
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

73

This can be a reflection of a person's personality, discomfort, and mood?

Posture

74

______ require muscle action maintain muscle tone. When a patient is immobile or on prolonged bed rest, activity level, activity tolerance, and muscle tone ________.

ADLs
Decrease

75

What body system regulates movement and posture? The _______ or motor strip is the major voluntary motor area and is in the ________.

Nervous System
Precentral Gyrus
cerebral cortex

76

This is a chemical that transfers electric impulses from the nerve across the neuromuscular junction to the muscle. What is the name of this chemical? When it reaches the muscle it stimulates it causing _______?

Acetylcholine

movement

77

Movement is impaired by disorders that alter ___________ production, which is the transfer of impulses from the nerve to the muscle, or activation of muscle activity. Ex. Parkinson's.

neurotransmitter

78

Decreased range of motion.
Erythema.
Increased diameter and calf or thigh.
Joint contracture.
Activity intolerance.
Muscle atrophy.
Joint contracture.

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Musculoskeletal Abnormalities

79

If ROM is limited in an affected joints nurses must maintain maximum ROM in unaffected joints and then design _______ to strengthen affected a muscle and joints to improve the patient's _______ and adequately use both affected and unaffected muscle groups.

interventions
posture

80

This is the most prevalent of muscle disorder in childhood? Patients experience progressive __________ weakness and ______ of skeletal muscle groups, with _______ disability and deformity.

Muscular Dystrophy
symmetrical
wasting
increasing

81

This body system regulates voluntary movement and trauma would result in impaired body alignment, balance, and mobility. What system is this?

central nervous system

82

Trauma from a head injury, ischemia from a stroke or brain attack or cerebrovascular accident, or bacterial infection such as meningitis can damage the _______in the cerebral cortex.

cerebellum or the motor strip

83

Damage to the ______ causes problems with balance and motor impairment directly related to the amount of destruction of the area.

cerebellum

84

Description: Inclining of head to affect his side in which sternocleidomastoid muscle is contracted.

Cause: congenital or acquired condition.

Treatments: surgery, heat, support, or immobilization depending on cause and severity, gentle ROM.

What postural abnormality is this?

Torticollis

85

Description: Lateral S or C shaped spinal column with vertebral rotation, unequal heights of hips and shoulders.

Cause: sometimes a consequence of numerous connective tissue you, congenital, and neuromuscular disorders.

Treatment: approximately half of children with this require surgery. Nonsurgical treatment is with the braces and exercises.


What postural abnormality is this?

Scoliosis

86

Description: hip instability with limited abduction of hips and occasionally addduction contractures because the head of the femur does not articulate with acetabulum because of abnormal shallowness of acetabulum.

Cause: congenital condition more common in breach deliveries.

Treatment: maintenance of continuous abduction of thigh so head of femur presses into center of acetabulum. Abduction splints, casting, and surgery.


What postural abnormality is this?

Congenital Hip Dysplasia

87

Description: legs curved inward so knees come together as a person walks.

Cause: congenital condition. Rickets.

Treatment: knee braces, surgery if not corrected by growth.


What postural abnormality is this?

Genu Valgum
(Knock Knee'd)

88

Description: one or both legs bend outward at me which is normal and till 2 to 3 years of age.

Cause: congenital condition. Rickets.

Treatment: slowing rate of curving if not corrected by growth.
With rickets increase of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus intake until WNL.


What postural abnormality is this?


Genu Varum
(Bow-Legged)

89

Description 95% medial deviation and plantarflexion of foot also known as _____.
5% lateral deviation and dorsiflexion also known as ________.

Cause: congenital condition.

Treatment: Casts, splints such as Denis Browne splint, and surgery based on degree and rigidity of deformity.

What postural abnormality is this?

Equinovarus

Calcaneovalgus

Clubfoot

90

Description: inability to dorsiflex and invert foot because of peroneal nerve damage.

Cause: congenital condition. Trauma. And proper positioning of immobilized patient.

Treatment: none cannot be corrected. Prevention through physical therapy. Bracing with ankle foot orthotic.

What postural abnormality is this?

Footdrop

91

Treatment of a fracture often includes positioning the fractured a bone in ______ and _______ it to promote healing and restore function.

proper alignment

immobilizing

92

Implementing evidence-based interventions and programs ______ the number of work-related injuries which improve the health of the nurse and ______ indirect costs to the health care agency.

Reduce
reduce

93

Comprehensive safe patient handling programs include the following elements an ________ assessment protocol for healthcare environments, _______ assessment criteria, _______ for patient handling and movement, special equipment kept in ______ locations to help transfer patients, back injury _______ nurses, and an ____ review that allows the healthcare team to apply knowledge about moving patient safely in different settings, and a _____ policy.

ergonomic
patient
algorithms
convenient
resource
after-action
no lift

94

Patient's of average weight and height without a chronic illness on bed rest lose muscle strength from baseline levels at a rate of ____ a day.

3%

95

Older adults with chronic illnesses develop pronounced effects of immobility ______ than younger patients with the same immobility problem.

Faster

96

This body system is made up of hormone secreting glands, maintains and regulates:
Response to stress and injury.
Growth and development. Reproduction.
Maintenance of the internal environment.
Energy production, use, and storage. What system is this?

Endocrine System

97

This body system helps regulate the tissue and cell internal environment through maintenance of sodium, potassium, water, acid-base balance, and energy metabolism. What body system is this?

The Endocrine System

98

This hormone increases the body's basal metabolic rate and energy becomes available to cells through the integrated action of _______ and ______ hormones. What hormone is this?

Thyroid Hormone
gastrointestinal
pancreatic

99

Immobility decreases the metabolic rate which alters the metabolism of _____, _____, and _____, causing fluid, electrolytes, and calcium ______. This causes gastrointestinal disturbances such a decreased ______ and slowing of ________.

carbohydrates
fats
proteins

imbalances
appetite
peristalsis

100

During infection immobilized patient will have an increased ____ as a result of fever or wound healing because these increase ______ requirements.

Basal Metabolic Rate

cellular oxygen

101

A deficiency in ______ and ______ is a characteristic of patient with decreased appetite secondary to immobility.

Calories
Proteins

102

Weight-loss, decreased muscle mass, and weakness are caused by tissue _____.

catabolism

103

_______ causes the release of calcium into blood circulation from inside the bone marrow. Normally the kidneys excrete the excess calcium. However if kidneys are unable to respond appropriately ________ results. ______ occur if Calcium reabsorption continues and the patient remains on bed rest or continues to be immobile.

Immobility
hypercalcemia
Pathological fractures

103

Difficulty in passing stools (constipation) is a common symptom although pseudo-diarrhea often results from fecal impaction. This is related to?

Immobility

104

As a result of immobility, with fecal impaction, the resulting fluid in the intestine produces distention and increases intraluminal pressure. Overtime intestinal function becomes _____, _______ occurs, _______ ceases, and ______ disturbances worsen.

depressed
dehydration
absorption
fluid and electrolyte

105

Lack of movement and exercise places patients at risk for ________ collapse of alveoli and ______ inflammation of the lung from stasis or poolling of secretions.

atelectasis
hypostatic pneumonia

106

In this complication with immobility secretions block a bronchiole or a bronchus and the alveoli collapses as the air existing is absorbed producing hypoventilation. Site of blockage affects severity.

atelectasis

107

This frequently results because mucus is an excellent place for bacteria to grow in the lungs in an immobile patient.

Hypostatic pneumonia

108

The three major ways that immobilization negatively affects the cardiovascular system?

Orthostatic hypertension,
increases cardiac workload,
Increases thrombus formation.

109

This complication of immobility is an increase in heart rate of more than 15% in a drop of 15 mm/Hg or more and systolic blood pressure or a drop of 10 mm/Hg or more and diastolic pressure when the patient changes from the supine to standing position?

Orthostatic Hypotension

110

In the immobilize patient decrease circulating fluid volume pooling of blood in the lower extremities and decreased autonomic response occur and causes this complication of immobility?

Orthostatic Hypotension

111

As cardiac workload increases so does _________. Therefore the heart works harder and less efficiently during periods of prolonged rest. As immobilization increases cardiac output _______, further decreasing cardiac efficiency, and ________ workload. What is this complication of immobilization called?

Oxygen consumption
decreases
Increasing
Orthostatic hypotension

112

Patients who are immobile are at an increased risk for _______ formation.

Thrombus

113

What three factors contribute to venous thrombus formation?

What is this referred too?

Damage to the vessel wall
Ex. injury during surgical procedure bloodflow changed
Ex. slow blood flow in Calf is R/T Bedrest
alterations in blood constituents ex. Change in clotting factors and
Increased platelet activity

VirchowsTriad

114

_________ results in loss of endurance, strength, muscle mass, decreased stability, balance, impaired calcium, metabolism, and joint mobility.

Restricted mobility

115

Loss of endurance, decreased muscle mass and strength, and joint instability puts patients at risk for what?

Falls

117

_______ is a common response to illness, decreased ADLs, and immobilization.

Muscle atrophy

118

When assessing for _________ monitor patient for symptoms such as dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain, and/or a change in vital signs.

exercise and activity tolerance

119

Immobilization causes what two skeletal changes?

Impaired calcium metabolism
joint abnormalities

120

Disuse, atrophy, and shortening of the muscle fibers cause this complication of immobility?

Joint contractures

121

_________ muscles for joints are stronger than ________ muscles and therefore contribute largely to the formation of contractures.

Flexor
extensor

122

When a contraction occurs the joint cannot achieve full ____?

ROM

123

Contractures can begin to form after only ___ hours of immobility in the older adult when this occurs the joints cannot achieve full ROM.

8

Contractures sometimes leave a joint in a non-functional position such as patients who are permanently curled in a fetal position.

124

What type of patient is at risk for developing foot drop?

CVA's or brain attacks
with resulting right or left sided paralysis
hemiplegia

125

These are stones that lodge in the renal pelvis or pass through the ureters. Immobilize patients are at risk for these because they frequently have hypercalcemia.

Renal Calculi

126

After a long period of ________ the patient will stop drinking fluids when you combine this with other problems like a fever a risk for ________ increases as a result urinary output declines after the ___ or ____day of immobilization and the urine becomes concentrated.

immobility
dehydration
fifth or sixth

127

This increases the risk for renal calculi formation an infection.

Concentrated urine

128

What is the most important risk factor related to immobility?

Pressure ulcers

129

_______ depends on the supply of oxygen, nutrients to and the elimination of _______ from the blood. Pressure affects cellular metabolism by _____ or ______ tissue circulation.

Tissue metabolism
metabolic waste
decreasing or totally eliminating

130

What population is at the highest risk for skin breakdown ?

Elderly

131

An older patient can develop skin breakdown within ____ hours?

3

132

_________ often leads to emotional and behavioral responses, ________ alterations, and changes in _______.

Immobilization
sensory
coping

133

This is an affective disorder characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejection, worthlessness, emptiness, and hopelessness out of proportion to reality.

Depression

134

Asymmetrical chest wall movement. Dyspnea.
Increased respiratory rate.
Crackles.
Wheezes.

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Respiratory Abnormalities

135

_________ removes the patient from a daily routine, in turn they will have more time to worry about the disability. Worrying increases the patients ______ causing withdrawal. Withdrawn patients often ______ want to participate in their own care.

Immobilization
depression
do not

136

Social isolation is a concern for this population when immobilization occurs?

Adolescents

Adolescence who experience immobility often are behind peers in gaining independence and accomplishing certain skills such as obtaining a drivers license.

137

When immobility occurs some adults lose their jobs which can affect what psychological aspect?

Self concept

138

The elderly experience progressive loss of ________ some possible causes include decreased physical activity, ______ changes, and bone calcium _______. The effect of bone loss is _____ bones.

total bone mass
hormonal
reabsorption
weaker

139

This can alter the elderly sense of balance and affect the blood pressure when they change positions too quickly, increasing the risk for falls and injuries?

Prescribed medications

140

Immobilization of some older adults results from ______ disease, _____ trauma, or chronic illness. Can occur gradually or suddenly. when performing care for this patient encourage the patient to perform as many ______ activities as possible maintaining their highest level of mobility.

degenerative
neurological
self-care

141

Design a care plan that improves the patients ______ status, promote _____, maintain ________ well-being, and reduces the ______ of immobility.

functional
self-care
psychological
hazards

142

Assessment of patient mobility focuses on what 5 assessments?

ROM
Gait
Exercise
Activity Intolerance
Body Alignment

143

What order should the assessment of movement go in?
1. Patient sitting in bed.
2. Patient lying down in bed.
3. Patient walking.
4. Patient transfers to chair.
This helps to protect the patient safety.

2
1
4
3

144

Range of motion is the maximum amount of movement available at a joint in one of the three planes of the body? Name the three planes

sagittal divides arms/legs
transverse divides top/bottom
Frontal divides front back

145

Does your days seem very long?
Are you sleeping well at night?
Have you noticed any places on your skin that a reddened or have any open sores? Describe any changes you have noticed in urinating and/or bowel movements?
What part of the nursing process is this?

Immobility Assessment

146

People who are depressed, worried, anxious or frequently unable to tolerate _______.

Exercise

147

_____ changes and ____ affect exercise and activity tolerance.

Developmental
age

148

Assess _________ to identify trauma, muscle damage, or nerve dysfunction.
It is important to assess alignment one sitting if the patient has muscle weakness, muscle paralysis, or nerve damage. what are you assessing for?

body alignment
Decreased sensation

149

When a patient with severe respiratory disease assumes a posture of leaning on the table in front of the chair and attempt to breathe more easily this is called what?

Orthopnea

150

Patients with
impaired mobility
Ex. traction or arthritis
Decrease in sensation
Ex. hemiparesis after CVA
Impaired Circulation
Ex. diabetes
involuntary muscle control
Ex. spinal cord injury
Are at risk for damage when _____?

lying down

151

Use anthropometric measurements to evaluate what complication of immobility?

muscle atrophy

152

__________ and ________ increased the rate of skin breakdown in a patient who is immobilized monitoring the laboratory levels of ________, serum proteins (__________ and ________), and ______ aid the nurse in determining metabolic functioning.

Dehydration and Edema
electrolytes
albumin and total protein
blood urea nitrogen BUN

153

Monitoring _________ and _________ patterns and assessing ______ helps to determine altered G.I. functioning and potential metabolic problems.

food intake
elimination
Wound healing

153

If a patient has a wound the ______ indicates how well nutrients are being delivered to the damaged tissue.

Rate of healing

153

This complication commonly occurs in patients who are immobilized. Assess the patient's food intake before the food tray is removed to determine the actual amount of food eaten.

Anorexia

154

Slowed wound healing.
Abnormal laboratory data.
Muscle atrophy.
Decreased amount of subcutaneous fat.
Generalized Edema

What body system is this nurse assessing in relation to immobility?

Metabolic Abnormalities

155

Perform a respiratory assessment at least every __ hours for patients with restricted activity. Inspect chest wall movement during the full ________ cycle if patient has atelectic area chest movement is _______.

2
inspiratory-expiratory
asymmetrical

156

Assessment of the cardiovascular system of a patient who is immobilized includes?

Check blood pressure.
Evaluate apical and peripheral pulses.
Observe for signs of Venus stasis.
Ex. Edema and Delayed Wound Healing

157

The longer the period of immobility, the greater the risk of _____ when the patient stands. Although not all patients experience this nurses monitor their vital signs during the first few attempts at sitting or standing.

Orthostatic hypotension

158

A third heart sound hurt at the apex is an early indication of?

Congestive heart failure

159

If the heart is unable to tolerate the increased workload. A body region such as the hands, feet, nose, and earlobes are ______ then central body regions.

Colder

160

To assess for DVT remove embolic stockings every ____ hours or according to policy and observe the calves for what three skin abnormalities?

eight
Redness warmth tenderness

161

_____ or calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot is contraindicated in patients when a DVT is suspected. It is ____ a reliable indicator in assessing for DVT as it is present in other conditions.

Homan's sign

Not

162

Measure bilateral calf and thigh circumference and record it daily as an alternative assessment for ___.

DVT