Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (58):
What are tissues made of?
Cells surrounded by matrix
What is a matrix made of?
Fibrous proteins and ground substance
What is ground substance made of?
Water, gases, and minerals
What is epithelial tissue?
Layers of closely spaced cells
Where in the body do you find epithelial tissue?
What is connective tissue?
tissues with more matrix then cell volume
What does connective tissue do?
Bind together to protect organs
What is nervous tissue?
tissue with excitable cells and tranmits coded information
What is simple squamous epithelium?
thin, scaly cells
What is simple cubiodal epithelium?
square or round cells
What is simple columnar epithelium?
tall, narrow cells
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
all cells touch the basement membrane
What is stratified epithelium?
2-20 layers of cells lying on top of each other
What is the most widespread epithelium in the body?
What is keratin?
durable, waterproof protein
What is the most abundant tissue in the body?
What are the 8 functions of connective tissue?
binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, heat production, and transport
What are the 6 cell types found in fibrous connective tissue?
Fibroblasts, macrophages, leukocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and adipocytes
What are the 3 fibers found in fibrous connective tissue?
Collagenous fibers, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers
What are the 2 types of fibrous connective tissue?
Loose and dense
What is areolar tissue?
loose connective and extremely variable
What is reticular tissue?
loose connective and contains fibroblasts
What is adipose tissue?
loose connective tissue made of fat
What is dense regular connective tissue?
made of mostly fibroblasts and collagen fibers
What is dense irregular connective tissue?
random collagen fibers
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
What type of tissue is bone composed of?
What are the two types of bone?
Spongy and compact bone
What are haversian canals?
transports blod vesses and nerves
What is the bone matrix?
secreted by bone cells in rings
What are osteocytes?
live bone cells
What is the ground substance of blood called?
What are the 3 formed elements in blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
What are neurons?
nerve cells that carry electrical impulses across the body
What are neuroglia cells?
they assist neurons
What is skeletal muscle?
muscle attached to bones
What is cardiac muscle?
muscle found only in the heart
What is smooth muscle?
muscle that forms the walls of internal organs
What are intercellular junctions?
protein structures that connect cells together
What are tight junctions?
multiple proteins in adjacent cells
What are desmosomes?
patch-like protein plaques
What are gap junctions?
6 transmembrane proteins that form a tunnel that connects cytoplasm
What is a gland?
a cell or organ that secretes substances elsewhere in the body
What are exocrine glands?
secretions that reach the surface of an organ or through a duct
What are endocrine glands?
secretions go to bloodstream
What are the 3 types of glandular secretions?
serous, mucous, and cytogenic
What are the 2 methods of secretion?
merocrine and holocrine
What is merocrine secretions?
are released through exocytosis
What is holocrine secretions?
are released when cell ruptures
What is metaplasia?
change from one type of tissue to another
What is hyperplasia?
tissue growth via cell replication
What is hypertrophy?
tissue growth through cell enlargement
What is atrophy?
shrinkage of tissue
What is necrosis?
premature death of tissue
What is infarction?
sudden death of tissue due to lack of blood
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
What is regeneration?
replacement of dead and damaged cells