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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (58):
1

What are tissues made of?

Cells surrounded by matrix

2

What is a matrix made of?

Fibrous proteins and ground substance

3

What is ground substance made of?

Water, gases, and minerals

4

What is epithelial tissue?

Layers of closely spaced cells

5

Where in the body do you find epithelial tissue?

organ surfaces

6

What is connective tissue?

tissues with more matrix then cell volume

7

What does connective tissue do?

Bind together to protect organs

8

What is nervous tissue?

tissue with excitable cells and tranmits coded information

9

What is simple squamous epithelium?

thin, scaly cells

10

What is simple cubiodal epithelium?

square or round cells

11

What is simple columnar epithelium?

tall, narrow cells

12

What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?

all cells touch the basement membrane

13

What is stratified epithelium?

2-20 layers of cells lying on top of each other

14

What is the most widespread epithelium in the body?

stratified squamus

15

What is keratin?

durable, waterproof protein

16

What is the most abundant tissue in the body?

Connective

17

What are the 8 functions of connective tissue?

binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, heat production, and transport

18

What are the 6 cell types found in fibrous connective tissue?

Fibroblasts, macrophages, leukocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and adipocytes

19

What are the 3 fibers found in fibrous connective tissue?

Collagenous fibers, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers

20

What are the 2 types of fibrous connective tissue?

Loose and dense

21

What is areolar tissue?

loose connective and extremely variable

22

What is reticular tissue?

loose connective and contains fibroblasts

23

What is adipose tissue?

loose connective tissue made of fat

24

What is dense regular connective tissue?

made of mostly fibroblasts and collagen fibers

25

What is dense irregular connective tissue?

random collagen fibers

26

What are the 3 types of cartilage?

hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage

27

What type of tissue is bone composed of?

osseus

28

What are the two types of bone?

Spongy and compact bone

29

What are haversian canals?

transports blod vesses and nerves

30

What is the bone matrix?

secreted by bone cells in rings

31

What are osteocytes?

live bone cells

32

What is the ground substance of blood called?

Plasma

33

What are the 3 formed elements in blood?

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

34

What are neurons?

nerve cells that carry electrical impulses across the body

35

What are neuroglia cells?

they assist neurons

36

What is skeletal muscle?

muscle attached to bones

37

What is cardiac muscle?

muscle found only in the heart

38

What is smooth muscle?

muscle that forms the walls of internal organs

39

What are intercellular junctions?

protein structures that connect cells together

40

What are tight junctions?

multiple proteins in adjacent cells

41

What are desmosomes?

patch-like protein plaques

42

What are gap junctions?

6 transmembrane proteins that form a tunnel that connects cytoplasm

43

What is a gland?

a cell or organ that secretes substances elsewhere in the body

44

What are exocrine glands?

secretions that reach the surface of an organ or through a duct

45

What are endocrine glands?

secretions go to bloodstream

46

What are the 3 types of glandular secretions?

serous, mucous, and cytogenic

47

What are the 2 methods of secretion?

merocrine and holocrine

48

What is merocrine secretions?

are released through exocytosis

49

What is holocrine secretions?

are released when cell ruptures

50

What is metaplasia?

change from one type of tissue to another

51

What is hyperplasia?

tissue growth via cell replication

52

What is hypertrophy?

tissue growth through cell enlargement

53

What is atrophy?

shrinkage of tissue

54

What is necrosis?

premature death of tissue

55

What is infarction?

sudden death of tissue due to lack of blood

56

What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death

57

What is regeneration?

replacement of dead and damaged cells

58

What is fibrosis?

replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue