Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (125):
What is included in the integumentary system?
skin, nails, hair, sweat glands, and oil glands
What are the other two names for the integumentary system?
cutaneous membrane and integument
What are the five functions of the skin?
protect the body from invasion, regulate body temperature, serves as a sensory receptor for sensations, provides for elimination of body wastes in the form of perspiration, responsible for the first step in the synthesis of vitamin D
what are the layers of the skin?
the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer
what does the epidermis consist of?
squamous epithelial cells, two layers discussed in the chapter-stratum basal and status corneum, melanocytes, keratin
what is the deepest layer of the epidermis called and what does it do and consist of?
the basal layer (stratum basal)- where new cells are created pushing the older cells out; contains melanocytes
what do melanocytes do?
they provide color to the skin and some protection from ultraviolet rays
what is the outermost layer of the epidermis and what does it do and what can be found there?
stratum corneum-where the dead skin cells are constantly being shed and replaced; the pushed out cells die and become filled with a hard protein called keratin
What does keratin do?
it waterproofs the body and creates a barrier that is the first line of defense for the body.
What is the second layer of the skin?
the dermis or corium
What does is its role and what is found in the dermis?
it protects the body against mechanical injury and compression and serves as a reservoir for water and electrolytes; it is composed of living tissue and contains capillaries, lymphatic channels, nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, connective tissue, and elastic fibers; also papillae (projections) originate from this layer (dermal papillae)
what are linear tears in the dermis known as?
stretch marks or stria
What is the third layer called?
the subcutaneous tissue
what does the subcutaneous tissue consist of?
loose connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, nerves, nerve endings, major blood vessels, and extensions of the sweat glands and hair roots
What is a strand of hair made up of?
long slender filament of keratin which consists of a hair root, which is embedded in the hair follicle, and a hair shaft
where does hair develop?
in the hair follicle, forming from keratin cells located at the bottom of the follicles
what is lanugo?
a soft downy hair that covers a fetus toward the end of the second trimester. It disappears shortly after birth.
what gives hair its color?
what are melanocytes?
darkly pigmented cells that produce melanin
what causes red hair?
a uniques type of melanin with iron
what causes white hair?
a decrease in melanin
What are the five listed components of the nail?
the nail body, the cuticle, the lunula, the free edge, and the nail bed
what nourishes the nail body?
the nail body which is epithelial layer and a rich supple of blood vessels
what glands are found the skin?
the sebaceous gland (oil), the sudoriferous glands, and ceruminous gland
where does the sudoriferous gland originate?
deep in the dermis. (the exist point is a called a pore in the epidermis)
what are the two main functions of the sudoriferous glands?
cool the body, and eliminate waste products
what do the sudoriferious glands produce?
sweat or perspiration
what is sweat made of and why does it smell?
it is clear and odorless, made up of mostly water and small amount of dissolved substances such as salts, ammonia, uric acid, urea, and other waste products; when it reaches the skin, it becomes contaminated and decomposes which creates the smell
what does the sebaceous gland produce?
it is known as the oil gland, secreting sebum that lubricates the hair and keeps the skin soft and waterproof
what influences sebum?
sex hormones which can cause pimples and blackheads when the flow is blocked.
what does the ceruminous gland produce?
cerumen- a yellowish-brown waxy substance that lubricates the skin of the ear. considered a modified sweat gland
What are the listed skin lesions from the powerpoint?
Abrasion, Abscess, Blister, Bulla, Carbuncle, Comedo, Cyst, Fissure, Fistula, Hives, Laceration, Macule, Nodule, Papule, Polyp, Pustule, Scales, Ulcer, Vesicle, Wheal
What is an abrasion?
Scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area
Example: carpet burn
What is an abscess?
Localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of pus-forming bacteria
Example: pustule = small abscess
What is a blister?
Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid
Also known as a vesicle
What is a bulla?
what is a carbuncle?
Circumscribed inflammation of skin and deeper tissues; contains pus
what is a comedo?
Typical lesion of acne vulgarism caused by the accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle
Example: whitehead = closed comedo
Example: blackhead = open comedo
What is a cyst?
Closed sac or pouch in or within the skin; contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material
Example: hydrocele = fluid-filled cyst (collection of fluid in the area of the scrotal sac in the male)
Example: sebaceous cyst = solid-filled cyst (filled with a cheesy material consisting of sebum and epithelial debris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland; also know as an epidermoid cyst)
What is a fissure?
Crack-like sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane
Example: anal fissure
What is a fistula?
Abnormal passageway between two tubular organs, or from an organ to the body surface; sometimes they are created surgically or as a result of congenital defeats, infection, or injury to the body.
Example: arteriovenous fistula-created surgically for hemodialysis
Example: rectovaginal fistula-abnormal passageway between the rectum and vagina allowing feces to escape into the vaginal canal; can result from trauma during childbirth
What are hives?
Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions on skin; paler in center than surrounding edges
Also called wheals
Example: mosquito bite
What is a laceration?
Tear in skin; torn, jagged wound
What is a macule?
Small, flat discoloration of the skin; neither raised nor depressed
Example: bruises, freckles
What is a nodule?
Small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin
What is a papule?
Small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin
Example: pimple, wart, elevated mole
What is a polyp?
Small, stalk-like growth, protruding upward or outward from membrane surface, resembling a mushroom stalk
Example: nasal polyp
What is a pustule?
Small elevation of skin filled with pus
Example: small abscess on the skin
What are scales?
Thin flakes of hardened epithelium that are shed from the epidermis
What is an ulcer?
Circumscribed, open sore or lesion of skin, accompanied by inflammation
Example: decubitus ulcer- known as a bedsore is a breakdown of skin and underlying tissues resulting from constant pressure to bony prominences and inadequate supply and oxygenation to the area
What is a vesicle?
Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid
What is a wheal?
Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin
Paler in center than surrounding edges
What pathological conditions of the integumentary system are addressed in the powerpoint?
Acne Vulgaris, Albinism, burns, callus, carcinoma basal cell, carcinoma squamous cell, dermatitis, eczema, exanthematous viral diseases, gangrene, herpes zoster, hyperkeratosis, impetigo, kaposi's sarcoma, keloid, keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, leukoplakia, malignant melanoma, nevus, onychocryptosis, onychomycosis, pediculosis, pemphigus, pilonidal cyst, psoriasis, rosacea, scabies, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, tinea, tinea capitis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, verruca
(ACK-nee vul-GAY-ris)----Common inflammatory disorder seen on face, chest, back, and neck; Appears as papules, pustules, and comedos; characterized by formation of previously mentioned, increased secretion of sebum, and hyperkeratosis at the opening of the hair follicle which blocks the discharge of sebum and promotes the colonization of anaerobic bacteria
(AL-bin-izm)----Condition characterized by absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes; these people are unable to create melanin; People are 1.hypersensitive to light 2. susceptible to skin cancer 3. prone to nearsightedness 4. have pink or very pale blue eyes 5. must avoid the sun to protect from burning
Tissue injury produced by flame, heat, chemicals, radiation, electricity, or gases
Extent of damage determined by:
-Mode and duration of exposure
-Thermal intensity or temperature
-Anatomic site of the burn
First-degree (superficial) burns-Eg: sunburn (epidermis only)
Second-degree (partial-thickness) burns-Eg:flash contact with hot objects (epidermis and upper dermis layers)
Third-degree (full-thickness) burns-Eg: deep burns from a fire (massive necrosis of epidermis and entire dermis, and may include part of the subcutaneous tissue or muscle); will likely require debridement(s) and grafting
Other factors that influence the severity of a burn
age of person, percentage of body surface burned, location of burn on the body, concurrent injuries
(CAL-us)---Common, usually painless thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction, such as weight-bearing areas of the feet and on the palmar surface of the hands; Also known as a callosity (up to one inch in size)
Carcinoma, basal cell
(car-sih-NOH-mah BAY-sal sell)---A malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center;
As the depression enlarges, the tissue breaks down, crusts, and bleeds;
Most common malignant tumor of epithelial tissue; occurs most often on skin exposed to the sun;
treatments include curettage and electrodesiccation, cryosurgery, or radiation therapy
Carcinoma, squamous cell
(car-sih-NOH-mah SKWAY-mus sell )---Malignancy of the squamous, or scale-like, cells of the epithelial tissue;
Much faster growing than basal cell carcinoma;
Greater potential for metastasis if not treated; Begins as a firm, flesh-colored or red papule, come times with a crusted appearance, as the lesion grows, it may bleed or ulcerate and become painful; low-risk treated with cryosurgery
Most frequent site to find carcinoma squamous cell
Frequent sites on sun-exposed areas
Top of nose
Margin of external ear
Back of hands
(der-mah-TYE-tis)---Inflammation of skin, seen in several different forms
Acute or chronic/ Contact or seborrheic
Contact -Allergic (develops by sensitization) or Irritant (repeated exposure of a mild irritant or initial exposure of a strong irritant; fine, itchy rash of clearly defined red papules and vesicles; dryness and scaling; causes-soaps, detergents, oven cleaners, and cleaches)
Seborrheic (seen where the oil glands are most prevalent: scalp, area behind the ears, eyebrows, sides of the nose, eyelids, and middle of the chest; skin appears reddened with a greasy, yellowish, crusting or scales; mild itching; most common in infants called cradle cap)
(EK-zeh-mah)---Acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and itching; long-term affect is thickening and hardening of the skin known as lichenification; 9-12% of population affected, usually children and infants; the inflammatory response is believed to be initiated by histamine release.
exanthematous viral diseases
(eks-an-THEM-ah-tus VYE-ral dih-ZEEZ-ez)----Skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease
Rubella = German measles = 3-day measles
Rubeola = red measles = 7- to 10-day measles
Erythema infectiosum = fifth disease
(GANG-green)----Tissue death due to loss of adequate blood supply, invasion of bacteria; subsequent decay with foul odor; neurotic tissue must be removed through debridement or amputation to restore healing; treatment should be aimed at prevention
Dry gangrene-seen in an extremity that is dry, cold, and shriveled with a blackening appearance (late complication of diabetes and mellitus)
Moist Gangrene- follows the cessation of blood flow to tissue after a crushing injury, embolism, tourniquet, or tight bandage
shingles; (HER-peez ZOS-ter)----Acute viral infection, characterized by painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin that follow along nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves; caused by reactivation of latent varicella virus (chickenpox); Highest incidence in adults over 50; Symptoms: severe pain, fever, itching, gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, general tiredness, increased sensitivity of the skin around the area
(im-peh-TYE-goh)---Contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria; Usually forming on the face
(KAP-oh-seez sar-KOH-ma)----Rare malignant lesions beginning as soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet; Involves the gastrointestinal tract and lungs; Gradually spreads throughout skin; Increased incidence in men with AIDS
(KEE-loyd)---Enlarged, irregularly shaped, elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during formation of a scar
(kair-ah-TOH-sis)---Skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium
(seb-oh-REE-ik kair-ah-TOH-sis)----Brown or waxy yellow, wart-like lesions that are loosely attached to the skin; Also known as senile warts
(ak-TIN-ic kair-ah-TOH-sis)---Premalignant, gray or red-to-brown, hardened lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight; Also known as solar keratosis
(loo-koh-PLAY-kee-ah)---White, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane; In mouth, vulva, or penis
(mah-LIG-nant mel-ah-NOH-mah)----Malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment; Darkly pigmented tumor with irregular surfaces and borders; variable colors
The ABCDs of malignant melanoma
Asymmetry-any pigmented lesion that has flat and elevated parts
Borders-any leakage across the borders of brown pigment or margins irregularly shaped are suspicious
Color-variations whether red, black, dark brown, or pale
Diameter-any lesions with the preceding characteristics measuring more than 6mm in diameter should be removed
(NEV-us)----Visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders; Commonly known as a mole; should be monitored for changes in size, color, thickness, itching, or bleeding bc of potential for developing malignant melanoma
(on-ih-koh-krip-TOH-sis)----Ingrown nail ; Most commonly involves the large toe
(on-ih-koh-my-KOH-sis)---Fungal infection of the nails
(pee-dik-you-LOH-sis)---Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by blood-sucking lice; May occur on the head, body, eyelashes and eyelids, or pubic hair
Pediculosis palpebrarum=Eyelashes and eyelids
Pediculosis pubis=Pubic hair
(PEM-fih-gus)---Rare, incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin; Spreads to involve large areas of the body
(pye-loh-NYE-dal SIST)----Closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back; Sometimes noted at birth as a dimple
(soh-RYE-ah-sis)---Common, noninfectious, chronic skin disorder manifested by silvery-white scales over round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching (Pruritus)
(roh-ZAY-she-ah)----Occurs when the small blood vessels of the cheeks enlarge and become visible through the skin; Chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face; Characterized by persistent redness over areas of the face, nose, and cheeks
(SKAY-beez)---Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite”; Resulting in a rash, pruritus, and a feeling in the skin of “something crawling
(sklair-oh-DER-mah)---Gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue
Systemic lupus erythematosus
(sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus air-ih-them-ah-TOH-sus)---Chronic, multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by lesions of the nervous system and skin, renal problems, and vasculitis; Characteristic “butterfly rash” is often seen on nose and face
(TIN-ee-ah)---Ringworm, Chronic fungal infection of the skin
Characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions; lesions are named according to the body part affected (capitis, corporis, pedis, cruris)
tines of the head; may lead to hair loss.
ringworm of the body in nondairy skin; looks like a circle and is raised; most common in hot, humid climates; contagious between humans and pets especially cats
ringworm of the groin, known as jock itch; hot and humid
ringworm of the feet; athletes foot; between the toes and on the sole
(ver-ROO-kah)---Benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis; Commonly known as a wart
Verruca vulgaris-Common wart on face, elbow, fingers, or hands in children and young adults
Plantar warts-Singly or in clusters on the sole of the foot; painful; at points of pressure
Condyloma acuminata- (veneral warts) develop near the mucous membrane/skin junctures on the prepuce of the penis or on the female vulva
Seborrheic warts or seborrheic keratoses-seen in the elderly population on face, neck, chest or upper back
Diagnostic treatments, techniques and procedures listed in the powerpoint
allergy testing, cautery, cryosurgery, curettage and electrdesiccation, debridement, dermabrasion, dermatoplasty, electrodesiccation, electrosurgery, escharotony, liposuction, skin biopsy, skin graft, Wood's lamp
-Various procedures used to identify specific allergens in an individual by exposing the person to a very small quantity of the allergen
-most common are the intradermal, patch, and scratch tests BUT the ImmunoCAP Allergy Blood Test more advanced, convenient, and reliable
Heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin, coagulation of the skin
Noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy tissue; used for low risk squamous cell malignancies and primary basal cell carcinomas, removing warts
curettage and electrodesiccation
Scraping away of abnormal tissue, followed by destroying the tumor base with a low-voltage electrode; used for superficial basal cell cancers, primary squamous cell carcinomas
Removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
Removal of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes in order to eliminate superficial scars of unwanted tattoos
Skin transplantation to a body surface damaged by injury or disease
Technique using an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; Also known as fulguration
Removal or destruction of tissue with an electrical current
electrodesiccation-destruction of superficial tissue
electrocoagulation-destruction of deeper tissue
electrosection-cutting through skin and tissue
Incision made into the necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn
Aspiration of fat through a suction cannula or curette to alter the body contours
Removal of a small piece of tissue from skin lesions for examination under a microscope to confirm or establish a diagnosis
excisional biopsy-removal of the complete tumor or lesion for analysis
incisional biopsy-a portion of the lesion is removed with a scalpel
punch biopsy-removal of a small specimen of tissue in the "cookie cutter" fashion
shave biopsy-uses the scalpel or a razor blade to shave lesions elevated above the skin
Process of placing tissue on a recipient site, taken from a donor site, in order to provide the protective mechanisms of skin to an area unable to regenerate skin
autografting-donor tissue domes from the person receiving the graft
homografting or allografting-tissue is harvested from a cadaver
heterograft or xenograft- donor tissue is obtained from an animal
Ultraviolet light that is used to examine the scalp and skin for the purpose of observing fungal spores such as ringworm
decubitus (ulcer); pressure sore
discoid lupus erythematosus
eczema, asthma, and hay fever
fluorescent antinuclear antibody
incision and drainage
(systemic) lupus erythematosus
purified protein dirivative
progressive systemic scleroderma
systemic lupus erythematosus
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation