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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (61):
1

Relationship between scientific discourse & world of nature

objects/events are measured and become variables: data

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variable

a property of object/event that can take on different values in different conditions

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Independant Variable

aka? (3) 

a condition manipulated or selected by a researcher to determine its effect on behavior

aka: FACTOR, TREATMENT, PREDICTOR VARIABLE

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types of Independent variables (4)

1) manipulated

2) selected

3) confounded

4) moderator

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1) manipulated

an IV under direct control of researcher whose values are determined by researcher

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2) selected

an IV not under direct control of researcher, whose values are selected by researcher

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3) confounded

An extraneous variable that varies systematically with IV & obscures its effect on behavior

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4) moderator

An variable that qualifies (changes) the effect of IV on behavior

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selected variables

(2) types

1) subject characteristics - personal features

 

2) natural treatments - things that have happened in peoples life

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Dependant variable

aka? (3) 

a measure of behaviour that reflects effect of IV

aka: outcome, results, criterion variable

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Control Variable

variable that is held constant throughout a research study

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Quantitative variable

A variable whose values register changes in magnitude or amount

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Categorical (qualitative) variable

A variable whose values register changes in kind or quality

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Discrete variable

a variable whose values are limited to a finite # of levels

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Physical variable (Φ)

directly definable in physical terms

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nonphysical (psychological) variable (Ψ)

defined in terms of behavioural or cognitive processes

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Ψ = f(Φ)  signifies that?

the psychological as a function of the physical

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Measurement (def'n according to Stevens, 1951)

assignment of #s to objects/events according to rules

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(5) scales of measurement

1) nominal

2) ordinal

3) interval

4) ratio

5) absolute

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1) nominal

measurement that labels/classifies objects or events into categories

- unique/generic classification

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2) ordinal

measurement that ranks objects/events in order of magnitude

generic ordinal - same rank assigned to object/event

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3) interval

measurement that specifies meaningful differences among values assigned to objects or events

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Likert Scale

a type of interval scale that is most common for measuring attitudes

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4) ratio

specifies meaningful ratios among values assigned to objects or events

- fixed zero point

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5) absolute

measurement that specifies natural units of some quantity

- fixed zero point

- fixed unit

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Magnitude Estimates

type of ratio scale that makes judgements relative to standard stimulus

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example of nominal scale

student #

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example of ordinal scale

ranking marathon runners, preference ranking

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example of ratio scale

length, distance, weight, time

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example of absolute scale

counting response following reinforcement (operant conditioning)

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Reliability

consistency of data from one occasion to another

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Validity

accuracy of data, in terms of its correspondence with reality

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(2) types of reliability

1) reliability of psychological tests

2)reliability (replicability) of experiments

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1) reliability of psychological tests

consistency of results/score on different occasions

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2) reliability (replicability) of experiments

yielding the same results in different trials

 ability to replicate experiment

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(2) types of Reliability (replicability) of Experiments

1) Direct Replication

2) Systematic Replication

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1) Direct Replication

2) Systematic Replication

1) repetition of experimental procedure to as exact a degree as possible - not creative

2) repeating idea without exact same conditions

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(2) kinds of Validity

1) validity of measuring instruments

2) validity of inferences

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1) validity of measuring instruments

instrument is measuring what it is intended to measure.

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2) validity of inferences

power to justify assertions & beliefs

- if premises are true, conclusion is true

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Force

intensity or strength of behaviour

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locus

where behavior occurs in environment

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subject variable

difference between subjects that can’t be controlled for but can only be selected

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variable of interest

variable for which its role in cause & effect of an observed relationship is not clear

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confounded variable

one whose effect cant be seperated from supposed IV

- unable to determine whether effect is result of supposed IV or confounded variable

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real limits

intervals defined by the number plus or minus half the distance to the next #

 

 

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apparent limits

point indicated by a number

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construct validity (of a test) 

test that measurements actually measure the constructs they are designed to but not others

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face validity

idea that test should appear to any person superficially to test what it is supposed to

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content validity

notion that test should sample range of behavior represented by theoretical concept being tested

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Criterion validity

idea that test should correlate with other measures of the same theoretical construct

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(2) types of measurement error

1) systemic

2) random

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systemic error

measurement error that is associated with consistency bias

- all groups/conditions of study are equally affected

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random error

measurement not associated with consistency bias

- reduces precision which which you can assess effects of IV & is a threat to reliability

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test-retest reliability

degree to which same test score would be obtained on another occasion

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internal consistency

degree to which various items on test are measures of same thing

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frequency

# of times behavior is performed

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rate

# of times behavior is performed relative to time

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duration

amount of time behavior lasts

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latency

amount of time between instruction & when behavior is actually performed

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topography

shape or style of behavior