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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (18):
1

Amylase

Any enzyme that can break down starch by catalyzing hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues.

2

Carbohydrate

Any of a class of molecules that contain a carbonyl group, several hydroxyl groups, and several to many carbon-hydrogen bonds. See monosaccharide and polysaccharide.

3

Cellulose

A structural polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers joined by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Found in the cell wall of algae, plants, and some bacteria and fungi.

4

Chitin

A structural polysaccharide composed of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG) monomers joined end to end by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Found in cell walls of fungi and many algae, and in external skeletons of insects and crustaceans.

5

Disaccharide

A carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharides (sugar residues) linked together.

6

Glycogen

A highly branched storage polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers joined by α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages. The major form of stored carbohydrate in animals.

7

Glycoprotein

Any protein with one or more covalently bonded carbohydrates, typically oligosaccharides.

8

Glycosidic linkage

The covalent linkage formed by a condensation reaction between two sugar monomers; joins the residues of a polysaccharide.

9

Hexose

A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing six carbon atoms.

10

Monosaccharide

A molecule that has the molecular formula (CH2O)n and cannot be hydrolyzed to form any smaller carbohydrates. Also called simple sugar. Compare with oligosaccharide and polysaccharide.

11

Oligosaccharide

A linear or branched polymer consisting of less than 50 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Compare with monosaccharide and polysaccharide.

12

Pentose

A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing five carbon atoms.

13

Peptidoglycan

A complex structural polysaccharide found in bacterial cell walls.

14

Phosphorylase

An enzyme that breaks down glycogen by catalyzing hydrolysis of the a-glycosidic linkages between the glucose residues.

15

Polysaccharide

A linear or branched polymer consisting of many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Compare with monosaccharide and oligosaccharide.

16

Starch

A mixture of two storage polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin, both formed from a-glucose monomers. Amylopectin is branched, and amylose is unbranched. The major form of stored carbohydrate in plants.

17

Sugar

Synonymous with carbohydrate, though usually used in an informal sense to refer to small carbohydrates (monosaccharides and disaccharides).

18

Triose

A monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing three carbon atoms.