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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (35):
1

inverse projection problem

the image on the retina could have been produced by any number of images; the stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous

2

viewpoint invariance

the ability to recognize an object from a different viewpoint

3

Why is it so difficult to design a machine that can perceive?

the stimulus on the retina is ambiguous, objects can be hidden or blurred, and objects look different from different viewpoints

4

Two components of perceptual organization

grouping and segregation

5

grouping

the process of putting together stimuli into units or objects

6

segregation

the process of separating one object from another

7

Wilhelm Wundt

structuralism

8

structuralism

distinction between sensations and perceptions

sensations combine to create perceptions

perceptions are aided by past experience

9

apparent movement

the perception of movement when nothing is really there (electronic signs with moving words)

10

illusory contours

perceived contour that is not actually present in the physical stimulus

11

principle of good continuation

connected points with lines are seen as belonging together and the lines are seen as following the smoothest path

objects partially covered by other objects are seen as continuing behind it (pile of rope)

12

principle of pragnanz

also called good figure or simplicity stimulus is viewed as the most simplest structure possible (olympic rings)

13

principle of similarity

similar things appear to be grouped together

14

principle of proximity/nearness

things near each other appear to be grouped together

15

principle of common fate

things moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together

16

principle of common region

elements in the same space appear to be grouped together

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principle of uniform connectedness

a connected region that has the same visual properties is seen as a single unit

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7 Gestalt Principles of Organization

good continuation

pragnanz/good figure/simplicity

similarity

proximity/nearness

common fate

common region

uniform connectedness

19

the problem of figure-ground segregation

what causes us to perceive objects as figures and others as backgrounds

20

example of reverse figure-ground

the face vs. vase picture

21

4 properties of figure and ground

1. figure is "thing-like" and rememberable

2. figure is seen as in front of the ground

3. ground is an unformed shape and it goes behind the figure

4. border ownership to the figure

22

8 Properties of figures

  1. it is lower in the field
  2. figures are convex
  3. in front
  4. border ownership
  5. meaningful
  6. smaller
  7. symmetrical
  8. Horizontally/vertically oriented

23

Property of ground

unformed material

24

What information helps observers perceive the gist of a scene so rapidly?

global image features

25

5 global image features

  1. degree of naturalness
  2. degree of openness
  3. degree of roughness
  4. degree of expansion
  5. color

 

26

regularities in the environment

certain characteristics that occur frequently in the environment

physical regularities and semantic regularities

27

light-from-above assumption

a physical regularity of the environment

we use the assumption light is coming from above to understand scenes

28

theory of unconscious inference

Hermann von Helmholtz

Some perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions we make about the environment

29

likelihood principle

part of the theory of unconscious inference

we perceive the object that is most likely to have caused the particular pattern of stimuli

30

What determines our ability to identify a stimulus

The way the brain reacts and the type of neural response it has

31

binocular rivalry

when a brain is unable to fuse the image from each eye and the person perceives from either left or right

32

What happened in the binocular rivalry tasks?

Neural firing would alternate depending on what was being perceived

Images perceived one at a time

33

What does the inverted face experiment tell us about the brain?

Processing occurs holistically, not feature by feature

34

What is an important facial cue for face recognition

eyes

35

Where does facial processing occure in the brain?

Fusiform face area is important but it happens all over