acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS
A disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A chronic, progressive disorder marked by a growing compulsion to drink and impaired control over drinking that eventually interfere with health and social behavior
A disease characterized by gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries
The idea that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared (kg/m2)
Malignant cell growth, which may occur in many organ systems in the body
The hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived
coronary heart disease
A chronic disease characterized by a reduction in blood flow from the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood
A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience
A persistent negative attitude marked by cynical, mistrusting thoughts, feelings of anger, and overtly aggressive actions
The body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances
Drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain.
A collection of processes (mainly food consumption) through which an organism uses the materials (nutrients) required for survival and growth
An excessive dose of a drug that can seriously threaten one’s life
The need to continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness
The need to continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for it
Sleep–inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system and behaviioral activity
The idea that there is a natural point of stability in body weight, thought to involve the monitoring of fat cell levels
settling point theory
The idea that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium.
Drugs that tend to increase central nervous system and behavioral activity
A progressive decrease in responsiveness to a drug with continued use
Type A Personality
A personality style marked by a competitive orientation, impatience and urgency, and anger and hostility
Type B Personality
A personality style marked by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior
Awareness that certain health–related behaviors are dangerous but erroneously viewing those dangers as risks for others rather than oneself
Which of the following is NOT good advice for devising an exercise program?
a. Increase your participation gradually.
b. Exercise regularly without overdoing it. c. Look for an activity that you will find enjoyable. d. You should try to "exercise through" any minor injuries
Typically, people are considered obese if their weight exceeds their ideal body weight by:
b. 40%. c. 60%. d. 80%.
The most significant narcotics problem in modern Western society is the use of:
b. cocaine. c. codeine. d. morphine.
Which of the following is NOT considered a chronic disease?
b. Stroke c. Influenza d. Heart disease
Studies of the immune system in humans have found that stress:
a. has very little effect on immune activity.
b. can lead to the destruction of lymphocytes. c. is related to increased levels of immune activity. d. is related to decreased levels of immune activity.
Virtually all of the research on stress and physical health in humans is:
b. correlational. c. experimental. d. observational.
Which of the following is NOT considered a common barrier to effective provider-patient communication?
a. Many providers use too much medical jargon.
b. Medical visits are usually very brief, allowing little time for discussion. c. Some patients are evasive about their real concerns because they fear a serious diagnosis. d. Some providers are reluctant to challenge their patients' subjective interpretation of their own symptoms.
Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such diseases as lung cancer, arteriosclerosis, and emphysema?
b. Smoking c. Poor nutrition d. Lack of exercise
The greatest threat to health in our society today is posed by:
b. chronic diseases. c. contagious diseases. d. environmental toxins
Which of the following statements about AIDS is accurate?
a. Having AIDS and being infected with HIV are basically the same thing.
b. People who donate blood on a regular basis are in danger of contracting AIDS. c. AIDS can be readily transmitted through casual contact with infected individuals. d. HIV carriers often remain healthy and symptom-free for many years after they are infected.
Drugs from which of the following groups carry the greatest risk of overdose?
b. Cannabis c. Stimulants d. Hallucinogens
Use of which of the following groups of drugs is most likely to result in distortions in sensory and perceptual experience?
b. Stimulants c. Hallucinogens d. All of these
The greatest threats to health in our society today are: a) environmental toxins. b) accidents. c) chronic diseases. d) contagious diseases caused by specific infectious agents.
Which of the following is not associated with elevated coronary risk? a) Cynical hostility. b) Strong emotional reactions to transient mental stress. c) Obsessive-compulsive disorder. d) Depression.
Why do people tend to act in self-destructive ways? a) Because many health-impairing habits creep up on them b) Because many health-impairing habits involve activities that are quite pleasant at the time. c) Because the risks tend to lie in the distant future. d) all of the above.
Some short-term risks of alcohol consumption include all but which of the following? a) Hangovers and life-threatening overdoses in combination with other drugs. b) Poor perceptual coordinates coordination and driving drunk. c) Increased aggressiveness and argumentativeness. d) Transient anxiety from endorphin-induced flashbacks.
Twin studies and other behavioral genetics research suggest that: a) genetic factors have little impact on people’s weight. b) heredity has scant influence on BMI but does influence weight. c) heredity accounts for 60 % or more of the variation in weight. d) Heredity is responsible for severe, morbid obesity but has little influence over the weight of normal people.
Which of the following has not been found to be a mode of transmission for AIDS?
a) Sexual contact among homosexual men. b) The sharing of needles by intraveneous drug users. c) Sexual contact among heterosexuals. d) Sharing food.
Regarding the seeking of medical treatment, the biggest problem is: a) the tendency of many people to delay treatment. b) the tendency of many people to rush too quickly for medical care of minor problems. c) not having enough doctors to cover peoples’ needs. d) the tendency of people in higher socioeconomic categories to exaggerate their symptoms.
In which of the following cases are people most likely to follow the instructions they receive from health care professionals?a) When the instructions are complex and punctuated with impressive medical jargon. b) Whey they do not fully understand the instructions but still feel the need to do something. c) When they like and understand the health care professional. d) All of the above
Which of the following risks is not typically associated with narcotics use? a) overdose. b) Infectious disease. c) Physical dependence. d) Flashbacks.
The use of sedatives may result in personl injury because they: a) cause motor coordination to deteriorate. b) produce a strong physical dependence. c) suppress pain warnings of physical harm. d) trigger hallucinations such as flying.
300 billion a year drain on the health care system
Stress is related to suppressed immune activity
What percentage of deaths are caused by heart disease?
Coronary heart disease causes what percentage of deaths?
heart is temporarily deprived of adequate blood flow
engaging in repetitive and negative thinking about some event
Percentage of men and women smokers
Men-24% and Women 18%
Smoker life expectancy
13-14 years shorter
After you stop smoking how many years does it take to lower health risk
Alcohol contributes to ________% of all auto accidents in the us
Contributors to obesity
Heredity, sleep deprivation