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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (21):
1

Predation

occurs when a member of one species
(the predator) feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species (the prey)

2

Parasitism

occurs when one organism (the parasite) feeds on another organism (the host), usually by living on or in the host.

3

Mutualism

is an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter, or some
other resource.

4

Commensalism

is an interaction that benefits one species but has little or no effect on the other.

5

Resource partitioning

occurs when species competing for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to share resources by using parts
of them, using them at different times, or using them in different ways

6

Coevolution

When populations of two different species interact in such a way over a long period of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other

7

Population

is a group of interbreeding individuals of the same species

8

Age structure

its distribution of individuals among various age groups

9

Range of tolerance

variations in its physical and chemical environment

10

Limiting factors

number of physical or chemical factors can help to determine the number of organisms in a population

11

Limiting factor principle

Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance

12

Environmental resistance

is the combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population

13

Carrying capacity

the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain
indefinitely

14

Population crash

population suffers a sharp decline

15

Population density

is the number of individuals in a population found in a particular area or volume

16

Ecological succession

The normally gradual change in species
composition in a given area

17

Primary ecological succession

involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem

18

Secondary ecological succession

in which a series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment

19

Inertia or persistence

the ability of a living system such as a grassland or a forest to survive moderate disturbances

20

Resilience

the ability of a living system to be
restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance

21

Interspecific competition

occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources such as food, water, light, and space