Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

Science > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (38):
1

Organism

A living thing

2

Species

Species: a group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species

3

Population

Population: a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time

4

Community

more than one population living in the same area at a particular time

5

Ecosystem

Ecosystem: communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

6

Ecology

Ecology: the study of ecosystems

7

Producers

Producers: organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

8

Decomposers

Decomposers: organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials

9

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis: the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

10

Autotrophs

See producer

11

Heterotrophs

See consumer

12

Consumers

Consumers: organism that relies on other organisms for its food; also known as a heterotroph

13

Herbivores

Herbivores: animal that eats only plants

14

Primary consumers

Primary consumers: the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

15

Carnivores

Carnivores: an animal that eats other animals

16

Omnivores

Omnivores: animal that eats plants and other animals

17

Detritivores

Detritivores: animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter

18

Ecological niche

Ecological niche: the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

19

Competition

Competition: the struggle among organisms for food, territory and other factors

20

Parasitism

Parasitism: an interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements

21

Mutualism

Mutualism: relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit

22

Commensalism

Commensalism: relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected

23

Interspecific competition

Interspecific competition: competition between organisms of the same species

24

Intraspecific competition

Intraspecific competition: competition between organisms of different species

25

Predator–prey relationship

Predator–prey relationship: relationship between organisms in which one species (the predator) kills and eats another species (the prey)

26

Symbiotic relationships

very close relationship between two organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners.

27

Distribution

Distribution: the area inhabited by a plant or animal species

28

Density

A number of living species in an area

29

Ecosystem

Ecosystem: communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

30

Biotic factors

Biotic factors: the living things (organisms) in an ecosystem

31

Abiotic factors

Abiotic factors: the non-living features in an ecosystem

32

Tolerance range

Tolerance range: range of an abiotic factor in the environment in which an organism can survive

33

Optimum range

Optimum range: the range, within a tolerance range for a particular abiotic factor, in which an organism functions best

34

Biodiversity

Biodiversity: the variety of species of biological organisms, often in relation to a particular area

35

Sampling methods

Sampling methods: techniques used to determine the density and distribution of various populations and communities within an ecosystem

36

Transects

Transects: a sampling area along a straight line in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

37

Quadrats

Quadrats: a sampling area, often one square metre, in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

38

Mark, release and recapture

Mark, release and recapture: a sampling method used to determine the abundance of mobile species