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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (95):
1

Collection of cells and cell products that perform specialized functions

tissues

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study of tissues

histology

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what are the 4 types of tissue?

connective, epithelial, muscular, neural

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What are the functions of epithelial tissue?

Physical protection, secretion, absorb nutrients, control permeability, provide sensation, specialized secretions

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lacks blood cells

avascular

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exposed surface

apical

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extensions of the cell membrane used to increase surface area for absorption and secretion

microvilli

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where is microvilli found?

portions of digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts

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extensions of the cell membrane for the movement of ECF or secretions

cilia

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where is cilia found?

portions of respiratory and reproductive tract

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attaches cell to underlying epithelial cells or deeper tissues

basal surface

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attaches deepest layer of epithelia with basal lamina

hemidesmosomes

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attaches cell to neighbor

lateral surface

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tight junction where membrane proteins of adjacent cells interlock

occlusion junction

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what is the function of occlusion junctions?

prevent water and solute passage

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lock together terminal web of neighboring cells

adhesion belt

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layer of microfilaments inside plasma membrane of apical surface

terminal web

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cells are held together with connexons

gap junctions

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channel proteins forming narrow passageways between adjacent cells

connexons

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what is the function of gap junctions?

chemical communication

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firm attachment where cytoskeleton of neighboring cells interlock

desmosomes

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one cell layer covering the basal lamina

simple

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more than one cell layer covering the basal lamina

stratified

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thin, flat squished

squamous

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cube shaped

cuboidal

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column shaped

columnar

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what is the function of simple squamous epithelium?

rapid diffusion, filtration, secrete fluid to reduce friction

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where are simple squamous epithelium found?

alveoli, lining ventral body cavities, heart, lungs, serous membrane

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what is the function of stratified squamous epithelium?

protect underlying tissue from abrasion

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where are stratified squamous epithelium found?

epidermis, lining mouth, throat, anus, vagina

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occurs in areas where mechanical stress and dehydration can occur, make things waterproof

keratinization

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what is an example of a keratinized area?

epidermis

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what is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium?

absorption and secretion

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where is simple cuboidal epithelium found?

kidney tubules, thyroid gland, ovary, secretory region and ducts of glands

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what is the function of stratified cuboidal epithelium?

absorption, secretion

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where are stratified cuboidal epithelium found?

lining ducts of sweat glands

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what is the function of transitional epithelium?

stretching and recoiling without out damaging

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where is transitional epithelium found?

bladder, ureters, urethra

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what is the function of simple columnar epithelium?

absorption, secretion of mucus, move material

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where is simple columnar epithelium found?

stomach, intestine, uterine tubes

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appears to be stratified, but all cells touch the basement membrane

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

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what is the function of pseudo stratified columnar epithelium?

protection, uses cilia to move material

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where are pseudo stratified columnar epithelium found?

nasal cavities, trachea

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what are the 2 functions of stratified columnar epithelium?

protection and secretion

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where are stratified columnar epithelium found?

salivary glands

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secretes to blood

endocrine

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secretes to epithelial surfaces

exocrine

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Secretions release through exocytosis

merocrine

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apical portion of glandular cell fills with secretory vesicle and is shed

apocrine

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entire gland cell fills with secretory products then bursts to release contents

holocrine

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what are the functions for connective tissue?

structural framework, transport fluids, protection, support, energy source, defense

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phagocytizes debris/ pathogens

macrophage

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build extracellular fibers

fibroblast

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stores lipids

adipocyte

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repairs damaged cells

mesenchymal cells

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stimulates inflammation

mast cells

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produce and secretes antibodies

plasma cells

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phagocytize foreign cells and attach certain pathogens

leukocytes

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what makes up a matrix

ground substance and extracellular protein fibers

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form strong branched network

reticular

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very strong and thick fibers

collagen

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slender stretchy fibers

elastic

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what is the function of areola connective tissue?

protection bind epithelial to deeper tissues

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where are areolar connective tissue found?

between muscles, beneath skin, beneath epithelial tissue

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what is the function of adipose connective tissue?

stores energy, insulate, protect, cushion

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where are adipose connective tissue found?

hypodermis, padding orbit, surrounds kidneys

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what is the function of reticular connective tissue?

form tough flexible network providing support and resisting distortion

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where are reticular connective tissues found?

liver, spleen lymph nodes.

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bind body parts, resist stress in one direction

dense regular connective tissue

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what does dense regular connective tissue contain?

collagen

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where are dense regular connective tissues found?

ligaments, tendons

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muscle to bone

tendon

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bone to bone and stabilizes organs

ligaments

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sustains tissue tension and withstands stresses in all directions

dense irregular connective tissue

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where are dense irregular connective tissues found?

visceral organs

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what is the function of elastic connective tissue?

stretching and recoiling

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where are elastic connective tissues found?

between vertebrae and walls of large blood vessels

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contain specific specialized cells and dissolved proteins in a watery matrix

fluid connective tissue

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what are some examples of fluid connective tissue?

blood and lymph

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what are the functions of supporting connective tissue?

protect soft tissue and support body weight

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provides stiff, slightly flexible support and reduces friction between boney surfaces

hyaline cartilage

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where is hyaline cartilage found?

capping bones, nasal septum walls of respiratory passageway

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contains elastic fibers which allow tolerate distortion without damage

elastic cartilage

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where is elastic cartilage found?

ear

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contains many collagen fibers aiding in its ability to resist compression, prevent bone to bone contact and limiting movement

fibrocartilage

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where is fibrocartilage found?

knee joint, between pubic bones, intervertebral discs

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contracts to produce movement

muscle tissue

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what are the 3 types of muscle tissue

smooth, cardiac, skeletal

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moves body by pulling on skeleton

skeletal muscle

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pumps blood through vessels

cardiac muscle

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moves materials through digestive tract, regulates diameter of muscles

smooth muscle

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where are neural tissues found?

brain, spinal cord, nerves

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conducts electrical impulses to transmit information

neural tissue

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cells that send signals

neurons

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supporting cells

neuroglial