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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (75):
1

Glycerinde + phosphate + 2 fatty acids (the tails)

Phospholipids

2

Phospholipids have a __ head and a __ tail and forms a __

Hydrophilic head and hydrophilic tail (amphipathic)
Bilayer

3

Sterols have __, whose function is to __

Cholesterol
Increase fluidity of plasma membrane

4

Two General types of protein

Integral and peripheral

5

Imbedded in the membrane (within the phospholipid bilayer)

Integral

6

Attached to outside of plasma membrane= not imbedded

Peripheral

7

The plasma membrane is made of a lot of different parts (specifically proteins)

Fluid-mosaic model

8

__ means it's not a rigid structure and things can move within it

Fluidity

9

__ is the main component that influences fluidity; keeps it from being rigid in cold weather and melting in warm weather

Cholesterol

10

__ means sugar, basically carbohydrates

Glyco

11

__ are attached to proteins

Glycoprotein

12

__ attached to lipids

Glycolipids

13

Glycoproteins and glycolipids function as __ and __

Self identifiers and protection (cell to cell adhesion receptors, cell to cell recognition)

14

Types of protein functions of the plasma membrane

Channel protein, carrier proteins, cell recognition, receptor protein, and enzymatic protein, junction protein

15

Has the tunnels through it in which things can pass in and out of cell (smaller molecules or ions)

Channel protein

16

Gets things across, specific due to shape change

Carrier protein

17

Glycoproteins in particular, deal with immune response
Ex:transplants

Cell recognition

18

Only bunds very specific molecules which causes shape change which causes reaction (usually in cell)

Receptor protein

19

Speeds up a chemical reaction, very specific, has shape change

Enzymatic proteins

20

Form connections between cells

Junction proteins

21

Function of plasma membrane

Regulates what goes in and out of cell

22

Plasma membrane is __ permeable

Selectively

23

__ pass freely

Small, non-charged molecules

24

__ don't pass freely

Large, charged molecules

25

Thing is that pass freely do not require __; they follow a __

Energy
Concentration gradient

26

Greater concentration of substance over a distance

Concentration gradient

27

Water goes through channels called __, which is why it goes through membranes

Aquaporins

28

Transport for large molecules

Bulk transport

29

Examples of bulk transport

Endocytosis and exocytosis

30

Energy is not required for __

Passive transport

31

The. Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration due to kinetic energy (concentration gradient)

Diffusion

32

Diffusion of water across a semi permeable membrane - has to have water and membrane

Osmosis

33

Pressure that develops due to osmosis

Osmotic pressure

34

The greater the osmotic pressure, the more likely the water will __

Diffuse in that direction

35

Talks about solute concentration, but it can't get across the membrane - water does the moving

Tonicity

36

Structural components of plasma membrane

Phospholipids (most numerous component), sterols, proteins

37

Three situations of tonicity

Isotonic, hypertonic, hypertonic

38

A solution that has the same concentration as the cell; no net movement of water

Isotonic

39

What will happen in an isotonic solution?

Nothing

40

The solute concentration is lower

Hypotonic solution

41

What will happen in a hypotonic solution?

Water will enter cell, cell will swell

42

A hypotonic solution that has so much swelling that the cell bursts is called __ (in animals)

Cytolysis

43

Cytolysis occurring in red blood cells is called __

Hemolysis

44

An example of hypotonic solution in plants that gives its rigidity is called __

Tugor pressure

45

Higher concentration of solute

Hypertonic solution

46

What will happen in a hypertonic solution?

Water will leave the cell, cell will shrink

47

Shriveling of cell

Crenation

48

Shrinking of cytoplasm do to osmosis in plant cells

Plasmolysis

49

Facilitated transport (diffusion) has __ and __

Carrier proteins and specific proteins for what they carry

50

Requires energy; goes against the concentration gradient (low concentration to high concentration)

Active transport

51

Two components of active transport

Pumps and bulk transport

52

Uses energy input

Pumps

53

Energy unit of cell; need it to move molecules against gradient

ATP

54

Prime example of active transport

Na-K Pump

55

Na-K Pump uses __ to function by moving __ outside the cell and __ inside the cell

ATP
3 sodiums
2 potassiums

56

Moving large or a lot

Bulk transport

57

Movement of substances from inside the cell to outside

Exocytosis

58

Movement of substances from outside the cell to the inside

Endocytosis

59

Three types of endocytosis

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated

60

Large molecules are taken in (eating them)

Phagocytosis

61

Taking in small molecules or liquid

Pinocytosis

62

Specific to what is being taken in

Receptor mediated

63

Types of tissue

Epithelial and connective tissue

64

Many cells but little extracellular matrix (ECM)

Epithelial

65

The stuff between the cells

Matrix (ECM)

66

Example of epithelial tissue

Skin

67

Very few cells, but lots of matrix (ECM)

Connective tissue

68

Example of connective tissue

Cartilage and tendons

69

Types of animal cell junctions

Tight junctions, adhesion junctions, gap junction

70

Plant cell junction

Plasmodesmata

71

Channels that connect adjacent plant cells

Plasmodesmata

72

Modification on cells that form watertight cell; form together to form impermeable sheets

Tight junctions

73

Connect the cells in specific spots, like buttons

Adhesion junctions

74

Preteen channel between cells that allows the exchange of molecules between cells

Gap junction

75

Power house of the cell

Mitochondria