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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (25)
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1

human muscle

660 muscles
1/2 body weight
ventilation, digestion,pumping of blood, movement

2

how is muscle formed

formed by muscle fibers (cells called myocytes) bound together by connective tissue

3

how is muscle linked to bone

by bundles of collegen fibers (tendons)

4

antagonist

relaxes muscle

5

thin fliaments and thick

thin= actin
thick = myosin

6

sarcomere

z line: protiens anchoring thin flilaments
h zone: space between thin filaments
m line: protiens achoring thick fliaments
I band: actin fliaments
a band: myosin fliaments

7

fasts twitch muscle fibers

appear white
fast contraxction
anaerobic
fatigue fast
large fibers

8

slow twitch muscle fibers

appear red
slow contraction
aerobic
fatigue resistant
small fibers

9

sensory nevres

transmit info from sensory recptors to CNS

10

motor nerves

transmit info from CNS to skeletal muscles

11

trainable factors

fibre diameters
intra and inter muscle coordination
nerve impulse frquency
energy stores
capillary density

12

concentric action

muscle overcomes a load
shortens

13

eccentric action

muscle is overcome by a load
lengthens

14

increased active muscle mass

increased absolute strength

15

retaliative strength

maximal strength/body mass= relative strength

16

muscle fiber type

increased FT content withina muscle = increased force output, speed of contraction and decreased endurance
increased ST content within a muscle = decreased force output, speed of contraction and increased endurane

17

age

increased age = decreaed FT number
selective loos of FT fibers - cell death ( apoptosis)
sacropenia: ages 30-70, 30% of muscle tissue

18

average women is

70% of mans strength at equal body mass
women have more ST fibers and less FT
20-30% less testosterone

19

adensine triphosphate

fuels all chemical processes
bodys energy currency

20

hydrolysis

energy liberated for muscle contraction
ATP- to ADP
ADP + free phosphate

21

ATP resynthesis

energy from breakdown of carbs, protein, and fat
ADP + P = ATP

22

immediate energy
short-term enerrgy
long-term energy

phosphagen system
glycolytic system
oxidative system

23

phosphagen system

anaerobic alactic system
short duration very high intensity activities

24

gylcolytic system

anaerobic latic system
1. low rate pyruvic acid-pyruvate: shuttled to mitochondria for aerobic metabolism
2. high rate pyruvic acid-lactic acid: stored in muscles until rest enters cori cycle in the liver

25

oxidative system

oxygen transport
maximal aerobic power (VO2 max)