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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (169):
1

diffusion

follows concentration gradient
ex: diffusion of oxygen from lungs into capillaries

2

osmosis

passive diffusion of water
ex: reabsorption of water from kidney tubules

3

facilitated diffusion

follows concentration gradient- uses carrier; does not require energy, requires carrier protein
ex: diffusion of glucose into red blood cells

4

active transport

against concentration gradient- uses carrier molecule and ATP (energy)
ex: reabsorption of salts from kidney tubules

5

endocytosis

membrane engulfs substance and draws it into cell in vesicle
ex: ingestion of bacteria by white blood cells

6

exocytosis

vesicle fuses with cell membrane releasing contents outside of cell; things leaving cell needs energy
ex: release of neurotransmitters by nerve cells

7

when equilibrium is reached, osmosis

doesn't stop

8

what is the egg to the beaker and vinegar

hypertonic

9

what is the dialysis bag to its oval container

hypertonic

10

Plasmolysis

the shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to losing water from osmosis

11

Hypertonic Solution

Water moves out of Cell

12

Hypotonic Solution

Water moves into the Cell

13

Isotonic Solution

Water moves equally in and out of the Cell

14

Diffusion/Osmosis

Movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration

15

vesicle

membrane-bound organelle

16

hypertonic

relatively high solute concentration

17

concentration gradient

concentration difference across space

18

cytolysis

bursting of cells

19

hypotonic

relatively low solute concentration

20

phagocytosis

uptake of large particles

21

pinocytosis

uptake of solutes or fluids

22

the random movement of molecules in diffusion requires energy in the form of ATP

false; no energy is required

23

when a solution is in equilibrium, all movement of its molecules stops

false; the movement never stops

24

sodium-potassium pumps cause positive charge to accumulate inside cells

false; outside becomes positively charged, inside becomes negatively charged

25

in a plant cell, water molecules exert turgor pressure on the cell membrane

true

26

molecules diffuse down their concentration gradient

true

27

the process of diffusion requires

a difference in the concentration of molecules throughout space

28

if the molecular concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space, the substances

is in equilibrium

29

a type of transport in which water moves across a membrane and down its concentration gradient is

osmosis

30

net movement of water across a cell membrane occurs

from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution

31

all forms of passive transport depend on

the kinetic energy of molecules

32

a structure that can move excess water out of unicellular organisms is a

contractile vacuole

33

most of the time, the environment that plant cells live in is

hypotonic

34

plasmolysis of a human red blood cell would occur if the cell were

in a hypertonic solution

35

the contractile vacuole of a paramecium should be active when the paramecium is in

a hypotonic environment

36

when a human red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic environment, it will

undergo cytolysis

37

facilitated diffusion is often used to transport

molecules that are not soluble in lipids

38

amalase

a digestive enzyme that is found in saliva; enzymes are organic catalysis; all the chemical reaction that occur in an organism are metabolism

39

anabolism

"building up" or synthesizing ; E. Coli, a bacteria present in the intestine- this synthesizes some vitamins for us (vitamins are coenzymes)

40

catabolism

"breaking down" to release energy; complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones

41

mitochondria

the site of energy release occurs; muscle cells require more energy so more mitochondria are present in these cells

42

physical digestion

chewing- increases the surface area for the chemical digestion which will follow ; hydrochloric acid, pepsin, other digestive enzymes; food is reduced tho chyme; duodenum- the first part of the small intestine; villi in small intestine- where digestion is completed; our body cannot process cellulose

43

cellulose add fiber

to our diet and increases the efficiency of peristalsis- the circular muscles in the intestine that move material down our system

44

diverticulitis

the condition when "pockets occur in the small intestine of weakened wall, and there is a buildup of collected food that does not proceed normally --> chronic pain

45

where is bile secreted from

Gall Bladder and also assists in the digestion of lipids; 90% of nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine

46

exergonic reactions

gives off energy
ex: fire crackers, bioluminescence of marine critters

47

endergonic reaction

energy is absorbed
ex; toasting bread, photosynthesis

48

tyrosinase

enzyme producing dark coat pigment in seals and arctic fox; functions only in cold temperatures when the animals' need is greatest

49

amylase

enzymes found in saliva, digestions of starch begins in mouth

50

bile

little as tenth of liver but not without it; produced by liver; stored in gallbladder; promotes fat absorption in the intestines

51

catalase

found in liver, potato cells, breaks down hydrogen peroxide --> h20 + 02

52

HCL

located in stomach, pH-2, produced too much = acid reflex/ulcer

53

lipase

digests fats, found in pancreatin and in intestine, small intestine = breaks down fat- glycerol and fatty acids

54

pepsin

breaks down protein in the stomach; active most at pH- 3

55

trypsin

breaks down protein in small intestine; most active pH- 6.5

56

what happens if you take an antacid prior to eating a hamburger

digestion problems as your stomach senates hydrochloric acid to dissolve food and taking enough antacid will make the food to sit in your stomach

57

where is pepsin and trypsin most active

pepsin- stomach
trypsin- small intestine

58

bolus

a rounded, semisolid mass of food that is either being swallowed or passing through the digestive tract

59

cellulose

a complex carbohydrate, or polysaccharide, that makes up the cell walls of all plants; provides fiber, or bulk, important in digestion

60

chyme

the soupy, semifluid mixture of partly digested food produced by gastric digestion

61

circumvallate papillae

v-shaped projections at the back of the tongue containing the taste buds most sensitive to bitter foods

62

enzyme

specialized proteins made by the body that promote or regulate biochemical reactions

63

digestive enzyme

split complex molecules of food into simpler and small molecules that can be absorbed

64

gallbladder

a muscular sac that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver

65

gastric

anything related to the stomach

66

gland

a cell, tissue, or organ that secretes a substance used by or eliminated from the body

67

glycogen

the main polysaccharide stored in animal cells

68

hormone

a chemical substance produced in the body by an endocrine gland that regulates and coordinates the functions of other cells and organs of the body

69

lipases

fat-splitting enzymes found in milk, in the pancreas, in fatty tissue, and in the intestines

70

liver

the largest organ in the body, weighing almost 2 kilograms; regulates blood-sugar levels, removes excess nutrients, converts excess glucose to glycogen and stores it, secretes bile, reprocesses red blood cells, stores iron and certain vitamins, and destroys bacteria and worn-out cells

71

mesentery

tissue that connects the intestines or organs to the posterior abdominal or pelvic walls

72

microvilli

tiny, fingerlike projections found mainly in cells concerned with absorption or secretion, such as thse that line the intestine

73

pancreas

second-largest gland in the body; functions as both an accessory digestive organ (produces essential digestive juices) and as an endocrine gland (produces essential several hormones, including insulin and glucagon, which controls glucose)

74

papillae

small, finger-like tissue projections or elevations

75

pepsin

the gastric enzyme that breaks down proteins

76

peristalsis

a wavelike movement produced by muscular contrations that sweeps food through the entire digestive tract

77

trypsin

a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas

78

Another name for the large intestine

colon

79

Thick ring of muscle found where the esophagus joins the stomach

sphincter

80

Flap of cartilage found at the opening of the respiratory tract

epiglottis

81

Name of the valve between the stomach and the small intestine

pyloric

82

Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degrees celcius

calorie

83

Long organ located behind the stomach

pancreas

84

Thick muscular sac in which protein digestion takes place

stomach

85

Pasty mixture that leaves the stomach

chyme

86

Part of the food tube where the GI tract and respiratory tract cross each other

pharynx

87

Tube that connects the pharynx and the stomach

esophagus

88

Large brownish organ that lies above the stomach

liver

89

Rhythmic muscular contractions of the digestive system

peristalsis

90

Ball of food gathered by the teeth, tongue, and salivary glands

bolus

91

Small sac that stores bile

gallbladder

92

the concentration of dissolved substances in a ____ solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell

isotonic

93

the diffusion of water molecules through a membrane from an area of higher water concentration to one of lower water concentration is known as

osmosis

94

if cells are placed in a strong salt solution, water will

pass from the cells to the salt solution

95

the concentration of dissolved substances is higher in a ____ solution than the concentration inside the cell

hypertonic

96

the loss of water resulting in a drop of turgor pressure is called

plasmolysis

97

the pressure that builds up in a plant cell as a result of osmosis is called

turgor pressure

98

some protists contain organelles called ____ which collect excess water in the cell and then squeeze it out of the cell

contractile vacuole

99

when calculating the percentage change over a period of time, what is the difference between the initial and final weight divided by

the initial weight

100

when a human red blood cell is placed in a solution that is hypertonic, what will it do

shrink

101

movement of material through the air or water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lesser concentration is called

diffusion

102

active transport uses

energy and carrier molecules

103

in a glass of sweetened tea, the solute would be the

sugar

104

the process of diffusion requires

a difference in the concentration of molecules throughout a space

105

a type of transport in which water moves across a membrane and down its concentration gradient is

osmosis

106

plasmolysis of a human red blood cell would occur if the cell were

in a hypertonic solution

107

pinocytosis involves the transport of

fluids into a cell

108

the contractile vacuole of a paramecium should be active when the paramecium is in

a hypotonic environment

109

the uptake of large particles into a cell is called

phagocytosis

110

if the molecular concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space, the substance

is in equilibrium

111

in a plant cell, what type molecules exert turgor pressure on the cell membrane

water

112

exocytosis is a

way for cells to release large molecules, such as protein

113

fresh water moves into a single celled organism

osmosis

114

pockets of the cell membrane fill with water and pinch off to become vacuoles inside the cell

pinocytosis

115

oxygen molecules (02) move from the lungs into the bloodstream

diffusion

116

an ameba engulfs a large particle of food

phagocytosis

117

carrier proteins transport glucose into a muscle cell

facilitated diffusion

118

sodium ions (Na+) are pumped out of a red blood cell

sodium potassium pump

119

how does the method of salt or sugar curing help preserve meat

salt and sugar both cure meat by osmosis; they dehydrate and kill the bacteria that make the food spoil

120

why are sliced potatoes soaked in water before they are fried

get crispier fried potatoes

121

why should you never drink salt water

excess intake of salt destroys the kidney which signals thirst which will make you keep drinking it; may eventually effect the brain

122

why should you not apply twice the amount of fertilizer

fertilizer drew the water away from the plant

123

what happens when a plant cell is placed in a beaker of pure water

it will swell and burst

124

the concentration of dissolved substances is lower than the concentration inside the cell

hypotonic solution

125

when a cell is placed in this solution, water will enter the cell by osmosis resulting in turgor pressure

hypotonic solution

126

the concentration of dissolved substances is the same as the concentration inside the cell

isotonic solution

127

the concentration of dissolved substances is higher than the concentration inside the cell

hypertonic solution

128

when injected into the body, it will not cause cellular damage because no osmosis occurs

isotonic solution

129

putting a plant cell in this type of solution will result in a loss of water, a drop in turgor pressure or plasmolysis, causing the plant to wilt

hypertonic solution

130

causes a cell to swell

hypotonic solution

131

doesn't chance the shape of a cell

isotonic solution

132

causes osmosis

hypotonic solution and hypertonic solution

133

causes a cell to shrink

hypertonic solution

134

transport protein that provides a tubelike opening in the plasma membrane through which particles can diffuse

channel proteins

135

is used during active transport but not passive transport

energy

136

process by which a cell takes in material forming a vacuole around it

endocytosis

137

particle movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

passive transport

138

process by which a cell expels wastes from a vacuole

exocytosis

139

a form of passive transport that uses transport proteins

facilitated diffusion

140

transport protein that changes shape when a particle binds with it

carrier protein

141

when placed in a hypotonic solution, a cell wall

swell

142

as the size of a cell increases

volume increases faster than surface area

143

each of the following in an example of passive transport except
a. diffusion
b. osmosis
c. exocytosis
d. facilitated diffusion

exocytosis

144

placing a cell in a hypertonic solution causes the cell to

shrink

145

placing a cell in an isotonic solution causes the cell to

stay the same

146

placing a cell in a hypotonic solution causes the cell to

swell

147

in what solution does the concentration of dissolved substances is lower than the concentration inside a cell

hypotonic solution

148

the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

osmosis

149

the expulsion of materials from a vacuole of a cell

exocytosis

150

you are conducting osmosis experiments with a test tube of human cells in solution; you add a teaspoon of table salt to the test tube, what will happen to the cells? what is the solution

they will shrink and shrivel; hypertonic

151

which of the following is true of facilitated diffusion

it occurs with a concentration gradient and requires transport proteins

152

by what process do cells transport wastes from within the cell to the external environment

exocytosis

153

which of the following factors limit the size of a cell

surface area of plasma membrane, amount of DNA, speed of diffusion

154

movement of water across a membrane from an area of greater concentration of an area of lesser concentration

osmosis

155

the distribution of molecules through a medium from an area of greater concentration to lesser concentration

diffusion

156

Brownian Motion

molecules are in constant motion, and as long s they hit and bounce against other molecules they transfer the properties until an equilibrium is reached

157

active transport

moving against a concentration gradient

158

two types of endocytosis

1. phagocytosis- engulfing process where large molecules may enter a cell
2. pinocytosis- fluid forcing its way into a cell

159

an animal cell shrivels up when it is ____ with its environment

hypotonic

160

the cells of a witted plant is ____ compared with their environment

isotonic

161

the capacity to cause chance, the ability to rearrange a collection of matter

energy

162

the energy of motion

kinetic energy

163

arises from the arrangement of atoms and can be released by a chemical reaction

chemical energy

164

the amount of energy that can raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celcius and is tiny units of energy

calorie

165

consists of an organic molecule called adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups

ATP

166

metabolism

the total of all the chemical reactions in n organism

167

catalase

an enzyme in tissue that breaks down solutions that would be toxic to cells

168

peristalsis

circular muscles in intestines that move food

169

tyrosinase

found in some animals, functioning only in cold temperature
ex: siamese cat