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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (25):

What are the key glands in the endocrine system and their function and effects on growth and development?

1. Hypothalamus - controls the pitutary gland.
2. Pituitary gland - master gland located at the base of the brain. Triggers the release of hormones from all endocrine glands. Produces growth hormones.
3. Thyroid - Affects growth and development of the brain and helps regulate body growth during childhood.
4. Adrenal glands - support the development of muscle and bones; contribute to sexual motivation
5. Pancreas -
6. Ovaries - regulates menstrual cycle, directs female sexual development
7. Testes - develops male reproductive system during prenatal period and directs it during adolescence


What is the basic unit of the nervous system?



Which 2 structures comprise the central nervous system?

Brain and spinal cord.


What is the make up of the peripheral nervous system?

Neural tissue


What is myelination? How does it work and its importance

Neurons get encased in myelin/protective sheath that speeds transmission. Rapid myelination results in development.


Name, describe and provide example of each of the 3 major principles of growth.

Cephalocaudal - growth occurs in head to tail direction; head is ahead of the body during prenatal period.
Proximodistal - prenatal period where the chest and internal organs form before the arms hands and fingers.
Orthogenetic - development starts globally and undifferentiated and moves toward increasing differentiation - a heirarchal integration


Describe the 5 main components of the life-span developmental model of health

1. Health is a lifelong process influenced by personal choices over the life span
2. Health is determined by both genetic and environmental influences. By the time we are old enough to make our own choices, we have already been influenced by choices made by our parents and grandparents.
3. Health is multi-dimensional - physical, mental and social intertwined with each other
4. Changes in health involve both gains and losses.
5. Health occurs in sociohistorical context and can be enhanced or constrained by social and historical factors.


Describe the processes of synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning.

Synaptogenesis - the growth of synapses
Synaptic pruning - removal of unnecessary synapses
Connections become more numerous as we go through daily behavior and thinking. Seldom used connections shrivel up and disappear (pruning).
There is great plasticity of the brain early in formation and many connections are being made. As we age pruning takes place as plasticity is not as great.


What are the survival newborn reflexes?

Breathing, eye blink, Pupillary, rooting, sucking, swallowing


What are the primitative newborn reflexes?

Babinski, grasping, moro, swimming, stepping


What are newborn behavioral states?

Sleep/wake patterns.


Name the two leading causes of death during the first year of life.

Premature delivery and congenital malformations.


Describe some research supported differences in abilities between girls and boys.

Boys have greater upper body muscle mass and shoulder width. Can throw faster and harder than girls (nature). Boys are given more things to throw and start earlier in sports and spend more time practicing (nurture).


What are brain changes during adolescence?

Increased synaptogenesis just before puberty followed by a period of synaptic pruning. A steady progression of myelination.
Part of the brain regulating self control has not yet matured. Adolescence is a period of increased responsiveness to rewards. Seek out reward-seeking behaviors.


When does the brain complete its development?

Brain development is never truly complete. Capable of generating new neurons across the life span.


Where in the adult brain is brain loss greater with aging?

Areas that control sensory and motor activities


Where in the adult brain is loss less with aging?

Creativity and cognitive functioning.



The growth of synapses during childhood


Synaptic pruning

Removal of unnecessary synapses



Responsiveness of the brain to the individual's experiences and can develop in a variety of ways


Corpus callosum

The super highway of neurons connecting brain halves



Stretches of DNA that form the tips of chromosones and that shorten with every cell division


Hayflick Limit

Cell division limits. 50 plus or minus 10


Free radicals

Toxic by products of metabolism



Antioxidant in grapes, red wine and peanuts