What is the major distinction between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?
A. A prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus, whereas a eukaryotic cell does.
B. A prokaryotic cell does not have ribosomes, wehreas a eukaryotic cell does.
C. A prokaryotic cell is smaller than a eukaryotic cell.
D. Prokaryotic cells have not prospered, whereas eukaryotic cells are evolutionary "successes."
E. A prokaryotic cell cannot obtain energy from its environment.
How does the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 1-mm cube compare to the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 3-mm cube?
A. The 3-mm cube has a higher ratio.
B. The ratio increases as the cube becomes larger.
C. Increasing the volume increases the ratio.
D. The ratio decreases as the cube becomes larger.
E. The ratio does not change.
A large organelle found in eukaryotic cells that genetically controls the cell's activities is the
The endomembrane system
A. dos not exist in plant cells.
B. is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
C. gives animal cells their shape.
D. includes the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria.
E. includes the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum.
Which one of the following organelles is though to have arisen from an endosymbiotic relationship with a prokaryote?
C. Golgi apparatus
The type of cell that always lacks a cell wall is the ___ cell.
Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
A. rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. smoom endoplasmic reticulum
C. golgi apparatus
Microvilli are created by projections of
D. intermediate filaments.
E. none of the above
Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is true?
A. It contains pores for the passage of large molecules.
B. It is composed of two membranes.
C. It contains ribosomes on the inner surface.
D. Both a and b
E. All of the above
A. is a static region of the cell.
B. contains DNA.
C. is composed largely of water.
D. supports the cell and determines its shape.
E. chemically modifies proteins and other molecules.
The organelle shown is found in all cells but is most numerous in cells requiring a large amount of energy (e.g., liver cells). what is the name of this organelle?
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosomes are important to eukaryotic cells because they contain
A. photosynthetic pigments.
B. starch molecules for energy storage.
C. their own DNA molecules.
D. the cells' waste materials.
E. digestive enzymes.
Microtubules are made of
A. actin, and they function in locomotion.
B. tubulin, and they are essential in chromosome ditribution during mitosis.
C. tubulin, and they are found in microvilli.
D. actin, and they function to change cell shape.
E. polysaccharides, and they function in locomotion.
The major factor limiting cell size is the
A. concentration of water in the cytoplasm.
B. need for energy.
C. presence of membrane-enclosed organelles.
D. ratio of surface area to volume.
E. composition of the plasma membrane.
Which structure is generally present in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic plant cells?
B. Cell wall
If all the lysosomes within a cell suddenly ruptured, what would be the most likely result?
A. The macromolecules in the cytosol would break down.
B. More proteins would be made.
C. The DNA within mitochondria would break down.
D. The mitochondria and chloroplasts would divide.
E. There would be no change in cell function.
The Golgi apparatus
A. is found only in animals.
B. is found in prokaryotes.
C. is the appendage that moves a cell around in its environment.
D. is a site of rapid ATP production.
E. modifies and packages proteins.
Which statement about mitochondria is not true?
A. The inner mitochondrial membrane folds to form cristae.
B. The outer membrane is relatively permeable to macromolecules.
C. Mitochondria are green because they contain chlorophyll.
D. Fuel molecules from the cytosol are used for respiration in mitochondria.
E. ATP is synthesized in mitochondria.
Which statement about plastids is true?
A. They are found in prokaryotes.
B. They are surrounded by a single membrane.
C. They are the sites of cellular respiration.
D. They are found only in fungi.
E. They may contain several types of pigments or polysaccharides.
Which structure is not surrounded by one or more membranes?
The cytoskeleton consists of
A. cilia, flagella, and microfilaments.
B. cilia, microtubules, and microfilaments.
C. internal cell walls.
D. microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.
E. calcified microtubules.
A. are composed of polysaccharides.
B. are composed of actin.
C. allow cilia and flagella to move.
D. make up the spindle that aids the movement of chromosomes.
E. maintain the position of the chloroplast in the cell.
Which statement about the plant cell wall is not true?
A. Its principal chemical components are polysaccharides.
B. It lies outside the plasma membrane.
C. It provides support for the cell.
D. It completely isolates adjacent cells from one another.
E. It is semirigid.
Looking at the scale shown here, how many times larger would a bacterium with a diameter of 10 µm be than a molecule with a diameter of 1 nm?
C. 100 (102)
D. 1,000 (103)
E. 10,000 (104)
How would the surface area-to-volume ratio of eight 1-mm cubes compare to the surface area-to-volume ratio of one 2-mm cube? (See diagram shown.)
A. They would be equal.
B. The 2-mm cube would have a greater surface area-to-volume ratio.
C. The 1-mm cubes would have a greater surface area-to-volume ratio.
D. The 2-mm cube would have a greater surface area; the 1-mm cubes would have a greater volume.
E. Cannot determine with the information provided
In the diagram of the prokaryotic cell shown, the region labeled 1 is called the
D. plasma membrane.
In the following figure, the leaders are pointing to the _______, a structure involved in _______.
A. cell wall; cell protection
B. flagella; cell movement
C. pili; exchange of genetic material
D. cytoskeleton; maintaining cell shape
E. internal membrane; energy release
Which one of the structures listed below is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells, such as the one shown here?
C. Internal membranes
D. Internal cytoskeleton
In the eukaryotic cell (shown), which one of the following is not a membranous compartment?
This figure depicts the process of cell fractionation. Which of the following statements regarding this technique is false?
A. Cell fractionation can be used to separate organelles from a tissue sample.
B. Cell fractionation separates components based on size.
C. Cell fractionation separates components based on density.
D. Cell fractionation requires the use of intact cells during the process of centrifugation.
E. Cell fractionation provides a way to biochemically characterize different organelles.
This figure shows a portion of the nuclear envelope. Which of the following statements about the nuclear envelope is false?
A. The space between the inner and outer membranes contains the nuclear lamina.
B. The inner and outer membranes are continuous.
C. The nuclear pores connect the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.
D. The nuclear pores are made of a pore complex.
E. Nucleic acids can move through the nuclear pores.
Consider the schematic of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) shown here. Which of the following statements about the ER is false?
A. Ribosomes are located within the lumen of the rough ER.
B. Cells that produce a lot of protein for export are packed with ER.
C. Within the rough ER, many proteins fold and assume their tertiary structure.
D. Carbohydrates are added to proteins to produce glycoproteins in the ER.
E. Chemical modification of small molecules such as drugs or pesticides occurs within the smooth ER.
Consider the transmission electron micrograph (EM) shown here. Which of the following statements about this EM is true?
A. The organelle shown is a chloroplast; the arrow points to a thylakoid.
B. The organelle shown is a mitochondrion; the arrow points to a crista.
C. The organelle shown is the Golgi apparatus; the arrow points to a medial cisterna.
D. The structure shown is endoplasmic reticulum (ER); the arrow points to rough ER.
E. The organelle shown is the nucleus; the arrow points to the nuclear envelope.
Complete the following sentences: In the accompanying schematic of a chloroplast, the leader points to a _______, which consists of seven stacked _______. The surrounding area is called the _______.
A. thylakoid; grana; stroma
B. granum; thylakoids; stroma
C. stroma; thylakoids; granum
D. crista; thylakoids; matrix
E. thylakoid; cristae; matrix
The _______, a cytoskeletal protein pictured here, functions as a rigid framework along which motor proteins composed of _______ can move.
A. intermediate filament; keratin
B. microtubule; myosin
C. microfilament; actin
D. microtubule; dynein
E. flagella; actin
The accompanying figure depicts the structure of the extracellular matrix found in the basal lamina of endothelial cells. Which of the following statements regarding the function of the extracellular matrix is false?
A. The extracellular matrix holds cells together in tissues.
B. The extracellular matrix plays a role in cell signaling.
C. The extracellular matrix helps filter materials passing between tissues.
D. The extracellular matrix contributes to the physical properties of tissues such as skin and cartilage.
E. The extracellular matrix is found in abundance in all tissues of the body.
Consider this figure, depicting the endosymbiosis theory. According to this theory, which of the following statements describes the derivation of the two membranes surrounding a chloroplast?
A. Outer Membrane—Host prokaryotic cell; Inner Membrane—Engulfed prokaryotic cell
B. Outer Membrane—Host eukaryotic cell; Inner Membrane—Engulfed prokaryotic cell
C. Outer Membrane—Host eukaryotic cell; Inner Membrane—Engulfed eukaryotic cell
D. Outer Membrane—Host prokaryotic cell; Inner Membrane—Chloroplast from engulfed eukaryotic cell
E. Outer Membrane—Host eukaryotic cell; Inner Membrane—Chloroplast from engulfed eukaryotic cell
cells are basic structural and physiological units of organisms
all cells come from preexisting cells
fibrous protein found in bone and connective tissue
small, generally spherical body found within nuclei
site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis
prolonged, intimate relationship between 2+ species living toether
organelle in which toxic molecules are formed in a rxn, then converted to water
long, whiplike appendage that propels cells
specialized proteins that use energy to change shape and move cells or cellular structures
contents of the cell, excluding nucleus
material of heterogeneous compositions that surrounds cells and may perform many functions, including adhesion of cells
theory that eukaryotic organelles evolved through the engulfment of one prokaryotic cell by another
organisms consisting of 1+ cells in which genetic material is contained within nuclei
fibrous structure within eukaryotic cells; made up of actin monomers
plays roles in:
- cell movement
- muscle contraction
flattened sac in chloroplasts that comprises the grana
organelle in eukaryotic cells
contains enzymes for citric acid cycle, respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation
converts glucose to ATP
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
portion of endoplasmic reticulum whose outer surface has attached ribosomes
region in prokaryotic cells in which chromosomes are contained; NOT membrane bound, as in a nucleus
membrane-enclosed organelles containing hydrolytic enzymes to break down molecules
hairlike organelle (shorter than flagellum) used for:
- locomotion in many unicellular organisms
- moving water/mucus by many multicellular organisms
membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
centriole found at base of eukaryotic flagellum or cilium
glycoprotein containing a protein coe with long, linear carbohydrate chains attached
membrane-bound structure within eukaryotic cells containing genetic material (e.g. chromosomes)
membrane-enclosed organelle in plant cells used for:
- water concentration for turgor pressure in cell
- hydrolysis of stored macromolecules
organelle in plant cells in which stored lipids are converted to carbohydrates
(how is it formed)
formed by fusion of primary lysosome with phagosome
macromolecules are taken up by phagocytosis and subsequently hydrolyzed into monomers
system of folded membranes in cytoplasm of cells;
functions in secretion from cell by exocytosis
structure surrounding plasma membrane of cells in plants, fungi, many protists, and most prokaryotes
gives cells their shape and limits expansion
small particle in cell; the site of protein synthesis
surface area-to-volume ratio
limiting/important factor in the size of cells
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
lysosomes (when present)
system of intracellular membranes that exchange material with one another
components of cytoskeleton; larger than microfilaments, smaller than microtubules
membrane surrounding a cell; regulates entry/exit of molecules and ions
non-eukaryotic organisms (including Bacteria and Archaea)
fluid within cytoplasm (excluding organelles & other solids)
membrane-enclosed organelle containing enzymes and pigments for photosynthesis
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
system of membranous tubes/flattened sacs found in eukaryotic cytoplasm
both smooth and rough ER
cytoplasmic strand connecting two adjacent plant cells; allows transfer of small molecules
similar to "gap junctions" in non-plant cells
composed of alpha and beta tubulin dimers
tubular structures found in:
- spindle apparatus
play roles in motion and shape maintenance in eukaryotic cells
give eukaryotic cells their shape
has capacity to arrange organelles
motion of a eukaryotic cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
portion of ER lacking ribosomes, having tubular appearance